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Retrospective view of affairs in Europe in the year 1780. Admiral Geary appointed to the command of the channel fleet on the death of Sir Charles Hardy. Eaft and Weft India convoy taken by the combined fleets, and carried into Cadiz. Lofs fuftained by the Quebec fleet. Admiral Geary refigns, and is fucceeded by Admiral Darby. M. de Guichen arrives at Cadiz, and the French fleets return to France. Great gallantry displayed in various engagements between British and French frigates. Siege of Gibraltar. Spanish fireships deftroyed. Success of General Elliot in deftroying the enemy's works. Queen of Portugal refufes to accede to the armed neutrality. Germany. Election of the Archduke Maximilian to the coadjutorship of Cologne and Munster, oppofed in vain by the King of Pruffia. Correfpondence between the King and the Elector of Cologne on the fubject. Meeting of the Emperor and the Empress of Ruffia, at Mobilow in Poland. Proceed together to Peterburgh. King of Sweden vifits Holland. Death of the Empress-Queen, and fome account of that great princess. Queftion, by torture, abolished for ever by the French king. Great reform of his houshold. Loans negociated by the court of Madrid. Public and private contributions to relieve the exigencies of the fate. Humanity of the Bishop of Lugo. Duke of Medena abolishes the Inquifition in his dominions.


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Retrospective view of affairs in America and the Weft Indies, in the year 1780. State of the hofiile armies on the fide of New York, previous to, and at the arrival of, Gen. Sir Henry Clinton from the reduction of Charles Town. Short campaign in the Jerfies. Connecticut farms. Spring



Springfield. Unexpected effect produced by the reduction of Charles Toron, in renewing and exciting the spirit of union and refiftance in America. Great hopes founded on the expected co-operation of a French fleet and army in the reduction of New York, and the final expulfion of the British forces from that continent. Marquis de la Fayette arrives from France. M. de Ternay, and the Count de Rochambeau, arrive with a French Squadron, and a body of land forces, and are put into poffeffion of the fortifications and barbour of Rhode-Ifland. Admiral Arbuthnot blocks up the French Squadron. Difpofitions made by Sir Henry Clinton for attacking the French auxiliaries. Gen. Washington paffes the North River, with a view of attempting New York. Expedition to Rhode Island laid afide. Great difficulties experienced by Don Bernard de Galvez, in his expedition to West Florida. Befieges and takes the fort at Mobille. Great land and naval force fent out from Spain, in order to join M. de Guichen in the Weft Indies. Function of the hoftile fleets, notwithstanding the efforts of Admiral Sir George Rodney, to intercept the Spanish Squadron and convoy. Sickness and mortality in the Spanish fleet and army, with fome other caufes, preferve the British islands from the imminent danger to which they were apparently expofed by the great fuperiority of the enemy. Thefe caufes operate ftill farther in their confequences; which affect the whole face and nature of the war in the new world, and entirely frustrate the grand views formed by France and America, for the remainder of the campaign. Spanish fleet and army proceed to the Havannah; and M. de Guichen returns from St. Domingo, with a convoy, to Europe. Great preparations made by the Americans for effectually co-operating with the French forces on the arrival of M. de Guichen. Washington's army in creafed, for that purpose, to 20,000 men. Invasion of Canada intended, and preparatory proclamations iffued by the Marquis de la Fayette. Caufes which prevented M. de Guichen from proceeding to North America. Sir George Rodney arrives, with a squadron, at New York. [13


Dreadful burricane in the Weft Indies. Deftruction and calamity in Barbadoes. St. Lucia, Granada, St. Vincents. Great lofjes fufta ned, and dangers encountered, by the British naval force in thofe feas. French iflands. Humanity of the Marquis de Bouille. Hurricane in Jamaica. Town of Savanna la Mar overwhelmed. Large tract of rich country, in a great meafure deftroyed. Diftreffes, and great laffes, of the inhabi tants. Bounty of the crown and parliament. Liberal benefactions of individuals. New York. Negociation, between Sir Henry Clinton, and the American General Arnold. Major Andre employed in the completion of the fcheme. Is taken in difguife, on his return from the American camp. Avows his name and condition in a letter to Gen. Washington. Gen. Arnold efcapes on board the Vulture ship of war. Various letters rwritten, and means ineffectually used, in order to fave Major Andre from the impending danger. He is tried by a board of American General Officers. VOL. XXIV.


War in South Carolina. State of affairs after the battle of Camden.

Inaction caused by the fickly feafon. Sequeftration of eftates. Col. Fer-

gufon defeated and killed on the King's Mountain. Gen. Sumpter routed

by Col. Tarleton. Brig. Gen. Leflie fent on an expedition from New

York to the Chesapeak. Proceeds to Charles Town, and joins Lord Corn-

wallis. Gen. Greene arrives in North Carolina, and takes the com-

mand of the Southern American army. Colonel Tarleton dispatched to

oppofe General Morgan, who advances on the fide of Ninety-Six.

Tarleton defeated with great lofs. Unfortunate confequences of the de-

ftruction of the light troops under Ferguson and Tarleton. Lord Corn-

wallis enters North Carolina by the upper roads. Leaves Lord Raw-

don with a confiderable force at Camden, to reftrain the commotions

in South Carolina. Vigorous, but ineffectual pursuit of Morgan.

Deftruction of the baggage in the British army. Admirable temper of the

troops. Mefterly movements by Lord Cornwallis for paffing the Ca

tavba. General Williamfon killed, and his party routed. Militia

furprized and routed by Tarleton. Rapid pursuit of Morgan, who

notwithstanding paffes the Yadkin, and fecures the boats on the other fide.

British army march to Salisbury; from whence Lord Cornwallis pro-

ceeds with the utmost expedition to feize the fords on the river Dan, and

thereby cut Greene off from Virginia. Succeeds in gaining the fords.

Rapid purfuit of the American army. Their efcape, by unexpectedly

paling the Roanoke. Extraordinary exertions and hardships of the

British army. Proceeds to Hillsborough. Expedition from Charles-

Town to Cape Fear River. Wilmington taken, and made a place of

arms and Supply. Gen. Greene, being reinforced, returns from Vir

ginia; and the British army marches to Allemance Creek. Skirmish be-

tween Tarleton's corps, and Lee's Legion. Greene falls back to the

Reedy Fork. Strange defect of intelligence, experienced by the British

general in North Carolina. American army being farther reinforced,

Gen. Greene again advances. Movements on both fides, preparatory to

the battle of Guildford. Account of that fevere and well-fought ac-

tion. British officers killed and wounded. Col. Webfter dies of his

wounds. Gen. Greene retires to the Iron Works on Troublesome Creek.

Lord Cornwallis obliged to march to the Deep River, through the want


of provifions and forage. Neceffities and diftreffes of the army, oblige Lord Cornwallis to proceed to Wilmington for Jupplies. Unufual confequences of victory.



Expedition to Virginia under General Arnold. State of grievances which led to the mutiny in the American army. Penfylvania line, after a fcuffle with their officers, march off from the camp, and chufe a ferjeant to be their leader. Meffage, and flag of truce, produce no fatisfactory answer from the infurgents, who proceed firft to Middle-Brook, and then to Prince-Town. Measures ufed by Sir Henry Clinton to profit of this defection. He paffes over to Staten Island, and fends agents to make advantageous proposals to the mutineers. Proposals for an accommodation, founded on a redress of grievances, made by Gen. Reed, and favourably received by the infurgents; who march from Prince-Town to Trenton upon the Delaware, and deliver up the agents from Sir Henry Clinton. Grievances redreffed, and matters finally fettled by a committee of the congrefs. Ravages made by Arnold in Virginia, draw the attention of the French, as well as the Americans, to that country. Gen. Washington difpatches the Marquis de la Fayette with forces to its relief. Expedition to the Chesapeak, concerted by M. de Ternay, and the Count Rochambeau, at Rhode Island, for the fame purpofe, and to cut off Gen. Arnold's retreat. Admirals Arbuthnot and Graves encounter the French fleet, and overthrow all their defigns in the Chesapeak. Lord Cornwallis's departure to Wilmington, enables Gen. Greene to direct his operations to South Carolina. Situation of Lord Rawdon at Camden. American army appears before that place. Greene attacked in his camp, and defeated. General revolt in the interior country of South Carolina. Difficulties of Lord Rawdon's fituation, notwithstanding his victory. Obliged to abandon Camden, and retire to Neljon's Ferry, where he paffes the Santee. British posts taken, and general hoftility of the province. Great havock made by the Generals Phillips and Arnold in Virginia. Extreme difficulties of Lord Cornwallis's fituation at Wilmington. Undertakes a long march to Virginia; arrives at Petersburgh, and receives an account of Gen. Phillips's death. Arrival of three regiments from Ireland at Charles-Town, enables Lord Rawdon to march to the relief of Ninety-Six. Gen. Greene, having failed in his attempt to take the fort by form, raifes the fiege, upon the approach of the British army, and is vigorously, but ineffectually pursued. Works at Ninety-Six deftroyed, and the place abandoned. Lord Rawdon marches to the Congarees; is disappointed in the expected junction of Col. Stuart, and narrowly efcapes being furrounded by the enemy, who had intercepted the intelligence of Stuart's failure. He forces his way through Congaree creek, and is joined by Col. Stuart at Orangeburgh. Gen. Greene advances to attack the British army, but retires again in the night. Campaign clofes, and

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fituation of the hoftile forces during the fickly feafon. Incredible bardhips fuftained, and difficulties furmounted, by the British troops in the two Carolinas. [72


Great lofs fuftained by the Spanish fleet in a hurricane, on its way to the attack of West Florida. Is refitted, and again proceeds from the Hacanna. Penfacola invested by fea and land. Gallant defence. Principal redoubt blown up by accident, which compels Governor Chefter, and General Campbell, to a furrender. Weft Indies. Ineffectual attempt on the Ifland of St. Vincent. Dutch island of St. Eustatius taken by the Brith fleet and army, under Sir George Rodney and General Vaughan. Prodigious booty. lands of St. Martin and Saba furrender. Dutch man of war and convoy, on their return to Europe, pursued and taken. The fettlements of Demerary, fequibo, and the Berbices, on the coast of Surinam, make a tender of fubmifion to the British government, and are granted favourable conditions. Difcontents, complaints, and law fuits, cccafioned by the confifcation of private property at St, Euftatius. M. de Graffe arrives with a fleet and great convoy in the West-Indies from Europe. Engagement between him and the Admirals Sir Samuel Hood and Drake, in the Channel of St. Lucia. Sir George Rodney departs from St. Eustatius to oppose the progress of the enemy. Ineffective attempt made by the Marquis de Bouille on the island of St. Lucia. French invafion of the island of Tobago. Vigorous defence. Public Spirit of the planters. Surrendered by capitulation. M. de Graffe, having escorted evaft convoy on its way to Europe, proceeds with his fleet to the Chefapeak. Sir George Rodney returns to England; and Sir Samuel Hood fails with a fquadron to counteract the defigns of De Graffe at the Chefapeak. [98

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Lord Cornwallis's progrefs in Virginia. Paffes the River James, and the South Anna. Parties detached to fcour the interior country. Arms and ftores deftroyed. Army falls back towards the fea. Rear attacked on the march to Willamfburg. Action previous to paffing the River James. Lord Cornwallis fortifies the pofts of York Town, and Gloucefter Point. Tranfactions on the fide of New York. Junction of the American army under Gen. Washington, and the French forces under the Count de Rochambeau, on the White Plains. Appearances of an attack on New York, Staten Island, and Sandy Hook. Combined army fuddenly march to the Delaware, which they pass at Trenton, and continuing their courfe through Philadelphia, arrived at the head of Elk. Expedition, under the conduct of Gen. Arnold, to New London. Defperate defence made at Fort Grifwold, which is taken by fterm, with confiderable lofs. New London burnt. Great lofs fufiained by the Americans, in the de


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