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UNIFORMITY OF CURRENCY, WEIGHTS, AND MEASURES.

Uniformity in the Currency, Weights, and Measures of the United States, is an object of great importance.

1790.

THE MINT.

The disorders in the existing Currency, and especially the scarcity of small change, (a scarcity, so peculiarly distressing to the poorer classes,) strongly recommend the carrying into immediate effect the resolution already entered into, concerning the establishment of a Mint.

1791.

COINAGE.

A coinage of gold, silver, and copper, is a measure which, in my opinion, has become indispensably necessary. Without a coinage, or lest some stop can be put to the cutting and clipping of money, our dollars, pistareens, &c., will be converted, as Teague says, into five quarters; and a man must travel with a pair of scales in his pocket, or run the risk of receiving gold, at one fourth less by weight than it counts.

1785.

The Mint of the United States has entered upon

the coinage of the precious metals, and considerable sums of defective coins and bullion have been lodged with the director, by individuals.

There is a pleasing prospect, that the institution. will, at no remote day, realize the expectation which was originally formed of its utility.

6. THE JUDICIARY.

CIVIL MAGISTRATES.

The dispensation of justice belongs to the civil magistrate; and let it ever be our pride and our glory, to leave the sacred deposit there inviolate.

1794.

THE JUDICIARY SYSTEM.

I have always been persuaded, that the stability and success of the National Government, and consequently the happiness of the people of the United States, would depend, in a considerable degree, on the interpretation and execution of its laws.

In my opinion, it is important, that the Judiciary

System should not only be independent in its operations, but as perfect as possible in its formation.

1790.

7. AGRICULTURE, COMMERCE, MANUFACTURES AND THE ARTS.

known.

AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES.

The Agricultural Society lately established in Philadelphia, promises extensive usefulness, if its objects are prosecuted with spirit. I wish, most sincerely, that every State in the Union would institute similar ones; and that these Societies would correspond fully and freely with each other, and communicate to the public all useful discoveries founded on practice, with a due attention to climate, soil, and

seasons.

1785.

IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE.

It will not be doubted, that, with reference either to individual or national welfare, Agriculture is of primary importance.

In proportion as nations advance in population

and other circumstances of maturity, this truth becomes more apparent, and renders the cultivation of the soil, more and more an object of public patronage.

1796.

THE HUSBANDMAN.

The life of the Husbandman, of all others, is the most delightful. It is honorable, it is amusing, and, with judicious management, it is profitable.

1788.

PROPER CULTIVATION OF LANDS.

Nothing, in my opinion, would contribute more to the welfare of these States, than the proper management of lands. Nothing, in Virginia particularly, seems to be less understood. The present mode of Cropping, practised among us, is destructive to landed property, and must, if persisted in much longer, ultimately ruin the holders of it.

1786.

Within our territories there are no mines either of gold or silver; and this young nation, just recovering from the waste and desolation of a long war, has not as yet had time to acquire riches by Agriculture and Commerce. But our soil is bountiful, and our people industrious; and we have reason to flatter

ourselves, that we shall gradually become useful to

our friends.*

1789.

AGRICULTURE AND MANUFACTURES.

There are many articles of manufacture, which we stand absolutely in need of, and shall continue to have occasion for, so long as we remain an agricultural people, which will be, while lands are so cheap and plenty, that is to say, for ages to come.

1786.

AGRICULTURE AND SPECULATION.

An extensive Speculation, a spirit of gambling, or the introduction of any thing which will divert our attention from Agriculture, must be extremely prejudicial, if not ruinous, to us.

1787.

AGRICULTURE AND WAR.

For the sake of humanity, it is devoutly to be wished, that the manly employment of Agriculture, and the humanizing benefit of Commerce, would su

* These words were written to the Emperor of Morocco, with whom, in the year 1786, Mr. Barclay had made a treaty, advantageous to our commercial interests; and Congress had ratified it, in the year 1787.

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