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quarters, to consult with the Commander in Chief, and the executives of the New England provinces, on the most effectual method of continuing, supporting, and regulating a continental army." The result of their deliberation was, that the new army should consist of twenty thousand three hundred and seventy-two men; but unhappily, the men were to be inlisted only for one year. The evils resulting from short inlistments were severely. felt at the close of the next campaign, even to the utmost hazard of the independence of the country.

Various causes operated to lead Congress to the almost fatal plan of temporary military establishments. Among the most influential of these, was a prospect of accommodation with the parent state. Want of experience in the management of war upon an extensive scale was another. The revolutionary conflict placed the people of America in a situation, in which all the energies of the human mind are brought into action, and man makes his noblest efforts; the occasion called upon the public theatre, statesmen and warriors, who, by the wise and honourable execution of the complicated duties of their new characters, surprised the world; still from them, errors of inexperience were to be expected. The fear of accumulating expense, which the resources of the country could not discharge, had a leading influence to deter the American government from the adoption of permanent military establishments; although the recommendations of Congress, and the regulations of state conventions

had, in the day of enthusiasm, the force of law, yet the ruling power thought it inexpedient to attempt to raise large sums by direct taxes, at a time when the commerce of the country was annihilated, and the cultivators of the ground were subjected to heavy services in the field of war. The only recourse was to a paper medium, without funds for its redemption, or for the support of its credit, and therefore of necessity subject to depreciation, and, in its nature, capable of only a temporary currency; Congress, therefore, was justly afraid of the expense of a permanent army. Jealousy toward a standing army, had a powerful influence upon the military arrangements of America; this jealous'spirit early insinuated itself into the legislative bodies of the colonies, and was displayed in many of their measures. It appears in the address presented by the provincial assembly of New York to General Washington, while on his journey to the American camp. " We have the fullest assurance," say they, "that whenever this important contest shall be decided, by that fondest wish of each American soul, an accommodation with our mother country, you will cheerfully resign the important deposit committed into your hands, and reassume the character of our worthiest citizen." Congress, as a body, unquestionably felt this jealousy, and was afraid to trust a standing army with the power necessary to conduct the war, lest at its successful termination, this army should become the master of the country for whose liberties it had fought. The plan of temporary inlistments was adopted

by Congress, in the confident persuasion, that draughts on every occasion might be made from the militia, to oppose any force Britain could bring into the field; and that the native patriotism and bravery of the Americans would prove superior to the mechanical movements of disciplined troops.

There being no magazines of arms in the country, the soldiers of the first campaign were of necessity permitted to bring their own muskets into service, although their different length and size occasioned much inconvenience. By the regulation of Congress for the new inlistment, the soldiers, who chose not to serve another campaign, were not permitted to carry home their arms; but they were to receive payment for them by appraisement. Every soldier who inlisted was to find a gun, or pay a dollar to the government for the use of one during the campaign. Every soldier, who found himself a, blanket was to receive two dollars. As it was impracticable to clothe the army in uniforms, clothes of different colours were provided, the price of which was to be deducted from the wages of the men.

As soon as the plan of the new army was settled, General Washington adopted measures to carry it into execution. In general orders he directed, that all officers, who intended to decline the service of their country at the expiration of their present engagements, should in writing make known their intention to their respective colonels; which was to be communicated to the general officers commanding brigades." Those

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brave men, and true patriots, who resolved to continue, to serve and defend their brethren, privileges and property," were called upon in the same manner to make known their intentions, and to consider themselves as engaged to the last of December, 1776, unless sooner discharged by Congress.

The period of patriotic enthusiasm had, in some measure, passed away; numbers of officers consented conditionally to remain in the army, and many made no communication on the subject. Immediate decision was necessary; and, in new orders, [OCT. 30.] the Commander in Chief solemnly called upon them for a direct and unconditional answer to his inquiry. "The times," he observed," and the importance of the great cause we are engaged in, allow no room for hesi tation and delay. When life, liberty and property are at stake; when our country is in danger of being a melancholy scene of bloodshed and desolation; when our towns are laid in ashes; innocent women and children driven from their peaceful habitations, exposed to the rigours of an inclement season, to depend, perhaps, on the hand of charity for support; when calamities like these are staring us in the face, and a brutal enemy are threatening us, and every thing we hold dear, with destruction from foreign troops; it little becomes the character of a soldier to shrink from danger, and condition for new terms. It is the General's intention to indulge both officers and soldiers, who compose the new army, with furloughs for a reasonable time; but this must

be done in such a manner as not to injure the service, or weaken the army too much at once."

The troops were assured that clothes, on reasonable terms, were provided" for those brave soldiers, who intended to continue in the army another year." With great difficulty the arrangement of officers was completed, and recruiting orders were immediately issued. [Nov. 12.] Recruiting officers were directed to "be careful not to inlist any person suspected of being unfriendly to the liberties of America, or any abandoned vagabond, to whom all causes and countries are equal, and alike indifferent. The rights of mankind, and the freedom of America would have numbers sufficient to support them, without resorting to such wretched assistance. Let those, who wish to put shackles upon freemen, fill their ranks with, and place their confidence in, such miscreants." To aid the cause, popular songs were composed and circulated through the camp, calculated to inspire the soldiery with the love of country, and to induce them to engage anew in the public service. But unfortunately, the army at this time was badly supplied with clothing, provisions, and fuel, and the consequent sufferings of the soldiers, operating upon their strong desire to visit their homes, prevented their inlistment in the expected numbers. On the last day of December, when the first term of service expired, only nine thousand six hundred and fifty men had inlisted for the new army, and many of these were of necessity permitted to be absent on furlough. It was found impossible to retain

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