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System should not only be independent in its operations, but as perfect as possible in its formation.

1790.

7. AGRICULTURE, COMMERCE, MANUFAC TURES AND THE ARTS.

AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES.

The Agricultural Society lately established in Philadelphia, promises extensive usefulness, if its objects are prosecuted with spirit. I wish, most sincerely, that every State in the Union would institute similar ones; and that these Societies would correspond fully and freely with each other, and communicate to the public all useful discoveries founded on practice, with a due attention to climate, soil, and

seasons.

1785.

IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE.

It will not be doubted, that, with reference either to individual or national welfare, Agriculture is of primary importance.

In proportion as nations advance in population

and other circumstances of maturity, this truth be comes more apparent, and renders the cultivation of the soil, more and more an object of public patronage.

1796.

THE HUSBANDMAN.

The life of the Husbandman, of all others, is the most delightful. It is honorable, it is amusing, and, with judicious management, it is profitable.

1788.

PROPER CULTIVATION OF LANDS.

Nothing, in my opinion, would contribute more to the welfare of these States, than the proper management of lands. Nothing, in Virginia particularly, seems to be less understood. The present mode of Cropping, practised among us, is destructive to landed property, and must, if persisted in much longer, ultimately ruin the holders of it.

1786.

Within our territories there are no mines either of gold or silver; and this young nation, just recovering from the waste and desolation of a long war, has not as yet had time to acquire riches by Agriculture and Commerce. But our soil is bountiful, and our people industrious; and we have reason to flatter

ourselves, that we shall gradually become useful to

our friends.*

1789.

AGRICULTURE AND MANUFACTURES.

There are many articles of manufacture, which we stand absolutely in need of, and shall continue to have occasion for, so long as we remain an agricultural people, which will be, while lands are so cheap and plenty, that is to say, for ages to come.

1786.

AGRICULTURE AND SPECULATION.

An extensive Speculation, a spirit of gambling, or the introduction of any thing which will divert our attention from Agriculture, must be extremely prejudicial, if not ruinous, to us.

1787.

AGRICULTURE AND WAR.

For the sake of humanity, it is devoutly to be wished, that the manly employment of Agriculture, and the humanizing benefit of Commerce, would su

* These words were written to the Emperor of Morocco, with whom, in the year 1786, Mr. Barclay had made a treaty, advantageous to our commercial interests; and Congress had ratified it, in the year 1787.

persede the waste of war, and the rage of conquest; that the swords might be turned into ploughshares, the spears into pruning-hooks, and, as the Scriptures express it, "the nations learn war” no more.

AGRICULTURE, COMMERCE, AND MANUFACTURES.

The advancement of Agriculture, Commerce, and Manufactures, by all proper means, will not, I trust, need recommendation.

I cannot forbear intimating the expediency of giving effectual encouragement, as well to the introduction of new and useful inventions from abroad, as to the exertions of skill and genius, in producing them at home.

1790.

COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY.

Commerce and Industry are the best mines of a

nation.

1780.

FOREIGN COMMERCE.

It has long been a speculative question among philosophers and wise men, whether Foreign Commerce is of real advantage to any country; that is, whether the luxury, effeminacy, and corruptions, which are introduced along with it, are counterbalanced by the convenience and wealth which it brings.

The decision of this question is of very little importance to us. We have abundant reason to be convinced, that the spirit of trade, which pervades these States, is not to be restrained. It behooves us, then, to establish just principles; and this cannot, any more than other matters of national concern, be done by thirteen heads differently constructed and organized. The necessity, therefore, of a controlling power, is obvious; and why it should be withheld, is beyond my comprehension.

1785.

COMMERCE AND TRADE.

From trade our citizens will not be restrained and, therefore, it behooves us to place it in the most convenient channels, under proper regulations, freed, as much as possible, from those vices which luxury, the consequence of wealth and power, naturally introduces.

1784.

A COMMERCIAL SYSTEM.

We are either a united people, under one head and for federal purposes; or we are thirteen independent sovereignties, eternally counteracting each other. If the former, whatever such a majority of the States as the Constitution points out, conceives

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