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bear hard upon us at times, they are nevertheless meant for gracious purposes.


When I contemplate the interposition of Providence, as it was manifested in guiding us through the Revolution, in preparing us for the reception of a General Government, and in conciliating the good will of the people of America towards one another, after its adoption, I feel myself oppressed, and almost overwhelmed, with a sense of the Divine Munificence.


I have made a tour through the Lakes George and Champlain, as far as Crown Point. Thence returning to Schenectady, I proceeded up the Mohawk River to Fort Schuyler, (formerly Fort Stanwix,) and crossed over to Wood Creek, which empties into the Oneida Lake, and affords the water communication with Ontario. I then traversed the country, to the head of the eastern branch of the Susquehanna, and viewed Lake Otsego, and the portage between that lake and the Mohawk River at Canajoharie.

Prompted by these actual observations, I could not help taking a more extensive view of the vast inland navigation of these United States, from maps, and the information of others; and could not but be struck with the immense extent and importance of it, and with the goodness of that Providence, which has dealt

its favors to us with so profuse a hand. Would to God, we may have wisdom enough to improve them.


We may, with a kind of pious and grateful exultation, trace the finger of Providence through these dark and mysterious events, which first induced the States to appoint a General Convention, and then led them, one after another, by such steps as were best calculated to effect the object, into the adoption of a 'system recommended by that General Convention; thereby, in all human probability, laying a lasting foundation for tranquillity and happiness, when we had but too much reason to fear, that confusion and misery were coming rapidly upon us.

That the same good Providence may still continue to protect us, and prevent us from dashing the cup of national felicity, just as it has been lifted to our lips, is my earnest prayer.


The Great Director of events has carried us through a variety of scenes, during this long and bloody contest, in which we have been, for seven campaigns, most nobly struggling.




I earnestly pray, that the Omnipotent Being, who has not deserted the cause of America in the hour of its extreme hazard, may never yield so fair a heritage to anarchy or despotism.


Satisfied, that we have sincerely wished and endeavored to avert war, and exhausted, to the last drop, the cup of reconciliation, we can, with pure hearts, appeal to Heaven for the justice of our cause, and may confidently trust the final result to that kind Providence, which has hitherto, and so often, signally favored the people of the United States.


The Great Ruler of Events will not permit the happiness of so many millions to be destroyed.



Our affairs are brought to a perilous crisis, that the hand of Providence, I trust, may be more conspicuous in our deliverance.

The many remarkable interpositions of the Divine Government, in the hours of our deepest distress and darkness, have been too luminous, to suffer me to doubt the happy issue of the present contest.



By the all-powerful dispensations of Providence, I have been protected,* beyond all human probability, or expectation; for I had four bullets through my coat, and two horses shot under me, yet escaped unhurt, although death was levelling my companions on every of me.



Providence has heretofore taken us up, when all other means and hope seemed to be departing from us. In this I will confide.


I commend my friends, and, with them, the interests and happiness of our dear country, to the keeping and protection of Almighty God.



The situation in which I now stand, for the last time, in the midst of the representatives of the people of the United States, naturally recalls the period, when the administration of the present form of government commenced. And I cannot omit the occasion, to congratulate you,† and my country, on the success of the

*In Braddock's defeat.

† Congress.

experiment, nor to repeat my fervent supplications to the Supreme Ruler of the Universe and Sovereign Arbiter of Nations, that his providential care may still be extended to the United States, that the virtue and happiness of the people may be preserved, and that the government which they have instituted for the protection of their liberties, may be perpetual.



Let us unite, in imploring the Supreme Ruler of Nations, to spread his holy protection over these United States; to turn the machinations of the wicked, to the confirming of our Constitution; to enable us, at all times, to root out internal sedition, and put invasion to flight; to perpetuate to our country that prosperity, which His goodness has already conferred, and to verify the anticipations of this government being a safeguard of human rights..


May we unite, in most humbly offering our prayers and supplications to the Great Lord and Ruler of Nations, and beseech him to pardon our national and other transgressions; to enable us all, whether in public or private stations, to perform our several and relative duties, properly and punctually; to render our national government a blessing to all the people, by constantly being a government of wise, just, and constitutional

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