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Of all the dispositions and habits which lead to political prosperity, Religion and Morality are indispensable supports.

In vain would that man claim the tribute of Patriotism, who should labor to subvert these great pillars of human happiness, these firmest props of the duties of Men and Citizens.

The mere Politician, equally with the pious man, ought to respect and cherish them. A volume could not trace all their connections with private and public felicity. Let it simply be asked, Where is the security for property, for reputation, for life, if the sense of religious obligation desert our oaths, which are the instruments of investigation in Courts of Justice ?



Let us with caution indulge the supposition, that Morality can be maintained without Religion.

Whatever may be conceded to the influence of refined education on minds of peculiar structure, reason and experience both forbid us to expect, that National Morality can prevail, in exclusion of Religious Principle.



It is the duty of all nations, to acknowledge the Providence of Almighty God, to obey his will, to be grateful for his benefits, and humbly to implore his protection and favor.



It would be peculiarly improper to omit, in this first official act, my fervent supplications to that Almighty Being who rules over the universe, who presides in the councils of nations, and whose providential aids can supply every human defect, that his benediction may consecrate, to the liberties and happiness of the people of the United States, a government instituted by themselves for these essential purposes, and may enable every instrument employed in the administration, to execute with success the functions allotted to its charge.

In tendering this homage to the Great Author of every public and private good, I assure myself, that it expresses your sentiments, not less than my own, nor those of my fellow-citizens at large, less than either.

No people can be bound to acknowledge and adore the invisible hand which conducts the affairs of men, more than the people of the United States. Every

* His Inaugural Address, April 30th, 1789.

step by which they have advanced to the character of an independent nation, seems to have been distinguished by some token of providential agency; and in the important revolution just accomplished in the system of their united government, the tranquil deliberations and voluntary consent of so many distinct communities from which the event has resulted, cannot be compared with the means by which most governments have been established, without some return of pious gratitude, along with an humble anticipation of the future blessings, which the past seem to presage.

These reflections, arising out of the present crisis, have forced themselves too strongly on my mind, to be suppressed. You will join with me, I trust, in thinking, that there are none, under the influence of which the proceedings of a new and free government can more auspiciously commence.


It always affords me satisfaction, when I find a concurrence in sentiment and practice between all conscientious men, in acknowledgments of homage to the great Governor of the Universe, and in professions of support to just civil government.



It having pleased the Almighty Ruler of the Universe, to defend the cause of the United American States, and finally to raise us up a powerful friend

among the Princes of the earth, to establish our liberty and independency upon a lasting foundation; it becomes us to set apart a day, for gratefully acknowledging the divine goodness, and celebrating the important event, which we owe to His divine interposition.

The several brigades are to be assembled for this purpose, at nine o'clock to-morrow morning, when their Chaplains will communicate the intelligence contained in the Postscript of the Pennsylvania Gazette of the second instant, and offer up Thanksgiving, and deliver a discourse suitable to the occasion.

At half-past ten o'clock, a cannon will be fired, which is to be the signal for the men to be under arms; the brigade inspectors will then inspect their dress and arms, and form the battalions according to the instructions given them, and announce to the commanding officers of the brigade, that the battalions are formed.

The commanders of brigades will then appoint the field-officers to the battalions, after which each battalion will be ordered to load and ground their


At half-past eleven, a second cannon will be fired, as a signal for the march, upon which the several brigades will begin their march, by wheeling to the right by platoons, and proceed, by the nearest way, to the left of their ground by the new position; this will be pointed out, by the brigade inspectors.

* May 7th, 1778.

A third signal will be given, on which there will be a discharge of thirteen cannon; after which, a running fire of the infantry will begin on the right of Woodford's, and continue throughout the front line; it will then be taken upon the left of the second line, and continue to the right.

Upon a signal given, the whole army will huzza, LONG LIVE THE KING OF FRANCE; the artillery then begins again, and fires thirteen rounds; this will be succceded by a second general discharge of musketry, in a running fire, and huzza, LONG LIVE THE FRIENDLY EUROPEAN POWERS.

The last discharge of thirteen pieces of artillery, will be given, followed by a general running fire, and huzza, THE AMERICAN STATES.


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