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only loaded him with honours, but forgiven his crimes; he, who had been prodigal of life in his country's cause, was indulged in extraordinary demands for his services. But the generosity of the states did not keep pace with the extravagance of their favourite officer. His love of pleasure produced the love of money to attain which he sacrificed his honour and duty. He made contracts, and entered into partnerships and speculations, which could not bear investigation. Thus embarrassed, a change of pohtical sides afforded the only probable hope of evading a scrutiny, and bettering his circumstances, and gratifying his favourite passions.

The American army was stationed in the strong holds of the High Lands, on both sides of the North River; Arnold was entrusted by general Washington, with the command of West Point, a strong fortified post. This was called the Gibraltar of America, and was built for the defence of the North River. Rocky ridges rising one behind another rendered it so secure, that it could not be invested by a less number than twenty thousand men....Arnold being entrusted with the command, carried on a negociation with general Clinton, by which it was agreed, that Arnold should so arrange matters, that Clinton should be enabled to surprize West Point, and have the garrison so completely in his power, that the troops must either lay down their arms, or be cut to pieces.

The loss of this fort would have been severely felt, as it was the repository of their most valuable stores. Sir Henry Clinton's agent in this negociation was Major Andre, adjutant-general of the British army, a young officer of uncommon meiit; nature had bestowed on him her choicest gifts; he possessed many amiable and rare qualities; his fidelity, his place, and character fitted him for this important business, but his high idea of candour, his abhorrence of duplicity, and nice sense of honor, made him reject those arts of deception which was necessary to accomplish its success. To favour the necessary communication, the Vulture sloop of war had been previously stationed in the North River, as near to Arnold's posts as was possible, without exciting suspicion. A written correspondence had been carried on between Arnold and Andre, under the fictitious names of Gustavus and Ander

800. À boat was sent at night to bring Major Andre to shore; he was met by Arnold on the beach without the posts of either army. As their business was not finished before the dawn of day, which made it unsafe for Andre to return to the Vulture sloop of war, he was persuaded by Arnold to lie concealed until the next night. He was then conducted within one of the American posts, against bis previous stipulation, and knowledge, and continued with Arnold the following day. The next night the boat-men refused to take him back, as the Vulture had changed her position. The only practicable mode of escape was by land to New York.

To ensure success he changed his uniform, which he had hitherto worn under a surtout; was furnished with a horse, and a pass under the name of John Anderson, allowing him to go to the White Plains, or lower if he thought proper. He advanced alone, and undisturbed a great part of the way. And when he expected he was nearly out of danger, was stopped by three of the New York militia, who, with others were scouting between the posts of the two armies. Major Andre, instead of producing his pass, asked the man who stopped him "where he belonged to ?" who answered "to below" meaning New York. He repli ed, "so do I," and declared himself a British officer, and desired he might not be detained. He soon found his mise ́ take. The captors proceeded to search him; sundry papers were found in his possession. These were secreted in his boots, and were in Arnold's hand writing. They contained exact returns of the state of the forces, ordnance ' at West Point, the artillery orders, and critical remarks on the works, &c..

Andre offered his captors a purse of gold, and a new valuable watch, if they would let him pass; and permanent provision, and future promotion, if they would convey and accompany him to New York. This was refused, and he was delivered a prisoner to colonel Jameson, who commanded the scouting parties. Andre still assumed the name of John Anderson, and asked leave to send a letter to Arnold, to acquaint him with his detention: This was granted, and Arnold immediately, upon the receipt of the letter, abandoned every thing, and went on board the Vule ture sloop of war.

Lieutenant-colonel Jameson forwarded, by an express, all the papers found on Andre, together with a letter from that gentleman, avowing his name and rank, in which he endeavoured to shew that he did not come under the de

scription of a spy. The style of the letter was dignified, without insolence. He stated, that he had held a correspondence with a person, by order of his general: that his intention went no further, than to meet that person on neutral ground, for the purpose of intelligence; and that against his express stipulation and intention, he was brought within the American posts, and had to concert his escape from them. Being taken on his return, he was betrayed into the vile condition of an enemy in disguise. He concluded with requesting, whatever his fate should prove, a decency of treatment might be observed, which would mark, that though unfortunate, he was branded with nothing that was dishonourable, and that he was involuntarily an impostor.

General Washington referred the case of major Andre to the decision of a board of general officers. On his examination, he candidly confessed every thing relating to himself; and particularly, that he did not come on shore under the sanction of a flag. The board did not examine a single witness, but founded their report on his own confession; and finally gave it as their opinion, "that major Andre ought to be considered as a spy; and that agreeably to the laws and usages of nations, he ought to suffer death."

Every exertion was made by the royal commanders, and every plea that ingenuity and humanity could suggest, to save the life of Andre, but without effect. Greene proposed delivering him up for Arnold; but this could not be acceded to by the British, consistent with principles of sound policy. Andre, though superior to the terrors of death, wished to die like a soldier. To obtain this favour, he wrote a letter to general Washington, fraught with sentiments of military dignity. General Washington did not think proper to grant this request; but his delicacy was saved from the pain of a negative denial. The guard which attended him in his confinement, marched with him to the place of execution. Major Andre walked with firmness, composure, and dignity, between two officers of his

guard, his arm locked in theirs. Upon seeing the preparations at the fatal spot, he asked with some concern, "Must I die in this manner?" he was told it was unavoidable. He replied, "I am reconciled to my fate, but not to the mode:" but soon added, "it will be but a momentary pang." He ascended the cart with a pleasing countenance, and with a composure which excited the admiration, and melted the hearts, of the spectators. Their sensibility was strongly impressed, by beholding a welldressed youth, in the bloom of life, of a peculiarly engaging person, mien, and aspect, devoted to immediate execution. He was asked when the fatal moment was at hand, if he had any thing to say: he answered, "Nothing but to request that you will witness to the world, that I die like a brave man." In a few succeeding moments the affecting scene was closed. To offer any further remarks upon the fate of this valuable and accomplished officer, would be unnecessary, as the world has been sufficiently acquainted with every transaction respecting it.

After the defeat of general Gates by Earl Cornwallis, that nobleman exerted himself to the utmost, in extending the progress of the British arms, and with considerable effect. But one enterprize, which was conducted by major Ferguson, was unsuccessful, That officer had been very active in his exertions in the royal cause, and had taken great pains to improve the discipline of the loyal militia; with about one thousand four hundred of these, he made several incursions into the country. He was, howevery, attacked on the 7th of October, 1780, by a superior body of Americans, at King's mountain, and totally defeated. One hundred and fifty were killed in the action, and eight hundred and ten made prisoners, and one thousand five hundred stands of arms were taken.

But the month following, lieutenant-colonel Tarleton, with a party of one hundred and seventy cavalry, attacked general Sumpter, who is said to have had one thousand men, at a place called Black Stocks, and obliged him to retire. Sumpter was wounded, and about one hundred and twenty of his party killed, wounded, and taken prisoners: about fifty of the British were killed and wounded.

On the third of September, the Mercury, a Congress packet, was taken by the Vestal, commanded by captain

Kepple, near Newfoundland. On board this packet was Henry Laurens, late president of Congress, who was bound on an embassy to Holland. He had thrown his papers overboard, but the greatest part of them were recovered, without receiving much damage. He was brought to London, and examined before the privy council; in consequence of which, he was committed a close pri soner to the tower, on a charge of high treason. The contents of those papers, hastened the rupture which soon after took place, between Great Britain and Holland; for among them was found, the plan of a treaty, between the United States of North America, and the republic of Holland.

On the first of January, 1781, the troops that were hutted at Morristown, called the Pennsylvania line, turned out, in number about one thousand three hundred, and declared they would serve no longer, unless their griev ances were redressed. A riot ensued, in which an officer was killed, and some wounded. They then collected the artillery and stores, and marched out of the camp. As they passed by the quarters of general Wayne, he sent a message to them, requesting them to desist, or the consequences might prove fatal. They nevertheless proceeded on their march, till the evening, when they posted themselves advantageously, and elected officers to command them; they next day they marched to Middlebrook, and on the third, they reached Princeton, where they fixed their quarters. On that day, a flag of truce was sent to them from the officers of the American camp, with a message, desiring to be informed what were their intentions. Some alledged they had served out the time of their enlistment, and would serve no longer, and others declared they would not return, unless their grievances were redressed. But they all at the same time protested, that they were not actuated by motives of disaffection to the American cause. This they soon had it in their power to make manifest, when general Clinton (who was soon informed of the revolt, and hoped to draw them over for the British Interest) sent two messengers with tempting offers to that purpose: these they disdainfully refused, and delivered up the messengers to Congress. Joseph Reid Esq. president of the state of Pennsylvania, afterwards eflicted on

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