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*Some characteristics of the Callendar pyrheliometer. E. R. MÖLLER. Pp. 344-347, 3 figs.'

[Theory of the Callendar automatic pyrheliometer. The indications of the Callendar pyrheliometer differ from the calculated intensities of radiation upon a horizontal surface on account of (1) greater sensitiveness for low intensity than for high; (2) selective absorption of short-wave radiation by platinum compensating grids; (3) internal reflection of light from glass cover to grids; (4) selective absorption by cover glass of ultra-violet and infra-red radiation from sun, and total absorption of radiation from grids; (5) grid surfaces not geometrical planes; (6) lag of registration behind radiation.-Author's synopsis.] *Suggestions concerning Dr. C. G. Abbot's program for four world observatories for the observation of extra-terrestrial solar radiation. C. DORNO. Pp. 348-351, 3 figs.

The scientific and practical importance of the above program is emphasized. On account of the inadequacy of existing meterological records, special observations, including detailed cloud records, are necessary before sites for solar observatories are finally decided upon. To obtain these cloud records an instrument which has been employed at the Davos observatory since October, 1919, for recording the illumination of a horizontal surface by the sun and sky may be utilized.

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Since, at night, the radiation to the sky varies with zenith distance but not with azimuth, it becomes possible to use for the measurements a blackened hollow sphere as an absolute black body, such as Ångström's "Tulipan.' This seems to meet Abbot's objection that the absorption of blackened surfaces for wave lengths greater than 15,μ is not well known, and, in consequence, measurements by instruments like Ångström's pyrgeometer contain an unknown error. Comparisons between the pyrgeometer and the Tulipan, however, show a reasonably constant ratio.

The importance of ascertaining the ozone content of the atmosphere is emphasized, and it is pointed out that photoelectric intensity measurements with the cadmium cell of the spectrally decomposed ultra-violet radiation may help to solve this difficult problem.

It is suggested that for investigations in the infra-red bacteria may be used in place of photographic plates. Also, the Ångström's nocturnal radiation measurements of 1913 should be repeated in optically undisturbed times.H. H. K.

A waterspout in the Adirondacks. P. 351.

Tornado in Union County, N. C., June 20, 1920. G. S. LINDGREN. Pp. 351-352.

[Includes descriptions by eye-witnesses of the beginning and progress of the tornado and its funnel cloud. No thunder, rain nor hail accompanied it.]

Tornado in southeastern Wyoming. P. 352.

[Accompanied by large hailstones-biggest ones about 7 inches in circumference. Steel roofs of railway coaches dented.]

Cold shore water owing to off-shore winds. C. F. BROOKS. Pp. 352-353[In view of the very unusual frequency and preponderance of off-shore winds on the New Jersey coast during June and July, 1920, it seems reasonable to ascribe the reported coldness of the water largely to their action in blowing the warm water out to sea. On the coast of Massachusetts the water was reported 10 degrees below normal. In this region the off-shore winds had not been so unusually greater than normal as in New Jersey. June, however, was 25 per cent cloudier than normal, and the coldness of last winter must have started the water unusually cold this spring. Thus, cold water in spring, warmed but moderately in early summer, and then largely blown out to sea, left for bathers the still colder ocean water creeping up from the depths of the Labrador current. Among the abstracts are three on meterological factors in the production of earthquakes.

*Starred titles indicate articles of which separates are being printed-apply to U. S. Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C.


Why not weather-vanes? To know which way the wind blows is one of the oldest and most innocent desires of the human race, and there are only two or three others shared more nearly by everybody, and not over a dozen that are more nearly continuous. Yet the brotherhood of New York architects seems to have conspired for the purpose of depriving the people of the city of this sort of knowledge!

Of course, atop of most of New York's buildings the weathercock of ancient custom or the arrow of later use would tell little or nothing, so confused are the aerial currents by our structures of varying height. Skyscrapers, however, are numerous, and towers of one kind or another are not a few. One or another of them is visible from almost every metropolitan street or window, and on any one of them a vane would tell its so often interesting and significant story.

Of tall, lofty flagpoles soaring from lofty roofs we have a multitude, but next to none of them have been equipped with the cheap and simple device that once was next to never missing in such places. Perhaps if a chance were given us, in our greater than ancestral wisdom, we should be respectful of weathercocks and would not charge against them as a fault the changeableness that is for them fidelity and full reason for being.-New York Times, July 16, 1920.


J. BRADY, member of the Irrigation Commission of New South Wales, spent most of August in California inspecting the irrigation of fruit lands. He also devoted much time to an examination of the manner of sun-curing fruit, an activity which reaches its climax during August in California. Mr. Brady expects to make an extended tour of the United States before returning home.

A. HELMS, of the New South Wales Forest Service, is at present in the United States on a mission which is of peculiar interest. He is seeking information concerning trees and shrubs which can be introduced into New South Wales and Australia from the United States. As a preparation for this work he spent a part of August in the San Francisco offices of the Weather Bureau and Forest Service examining data in the hope of finding forested regions in the United States where climatic and soil conditions are similar to those in the regions which the government which he represents proposes to reforest. He expects to devote the remainder of the year 1920 touring the United States in search of the necessary field data, and he hopes to forward a large quantity of seeds and seedlings before the completion of his mission.

Dr. FLOYD A. NAGLER, formerly 2d lieutenant in Meteorological Service, U. S. Signal Corps, and for a few years assistant to Mr. Robert E. Horton, consulting hydraulic engineer, Voorheesville, N. Y., has assumed his duties as Assistant Professor of Hydraulics at the University of Iowa, Iowa City, Ia.



President, ROBERT DEC. WARD, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.
Vice-President, W. J. HUMPHREYS, U. S. Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C.
Secretary, CHARLES F. BROOKS, U. S. Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C.
Treasurer, ROBERT E. HORTON, R. D. No. 1, Voorheesville, N. Y.

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Officers of the Society are ex-officio members of the Council.


The objects of this Society are: The advancement and diffusion of knowledge of meteorology, including climatology; and the development of its application to public health, agriculture, engineering, transportation by land and inland waterways, navigation of the air and oceans, and other forms of industry and commerce.-CONSTITUTION, ARTICLE II.


Membership dues are one dollar or more per year. Those paying $5 to $20 are classed as Contributing Members; those paying $20 to $100 are classed as Sustaining Members, and those paying $100 or more are classed as Patrons. Life membership in any of the classes are at twenty times the annual dues for the class. For special provisions as to corporation memberships, consult the chairman of the Committee on Corporation Memberships. All members receive the BULLETIN of the Society, and those paying $5, or more, the MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW as well. Consultation with the various committees is open to all. All members have equal voting privileges.


Membership: CHARLES: F. BROOKS, Chairman, Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C.; C. N. KEYSER, A. H. PALMER, J. W. REDWAY.

Corporation Membership: ROBERT E. HORTON, R. D. No. 1, Voorheesville, N. Y.; E. H. BOWIE, C. F. BROOKS.

Meteorological Instruction: WILFRED M. WILSON, Chairman, Dept. of Meteorology, Cronell University, Ithaca, N. Y.; W. I. MILHAM, H. E. SIMPSON. F. L. WEST.

Public Information: C. FITZHUGH TALMAN, Chairman, Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C.; J. MALCOLM BIRD, W. B. Kaempffert, PAUL BROCKETT. Research: CHARLES F. MARVIN, Chairman. Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C.; E. H. BOWIE, S. P. FERGUSSON, H. H. KIMBALL, ALEXANDER MCADIE. Physiological Meteorology: ELLSWORTH HUNTINGTON, Chairman, Yale University, New Haven, Conn.; H. G. CORNTHWAITE, GUY HINSDALE, G. T. PALMER, J. W. REDWAY.

Agricultural Meteorology: J. WARREN SMITH, Chairman, Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C.; A. J. CONNOR, A. W. DOUGLAS, A. D. HOPKINS, H. E. HORTON, E. S. JOHNSTON, G. L. PELTIER.

Commercial Meteorology: H. J. Cox, Chairman, Weather Bureau, Federal Building, Chicago, Ill.; W. C. DEVEREAUX, H. C. FRANKENFIELD, M. W. HAYES, H. W. RICHARDSON, J. A. SUTHERLAND, A. H. THIESSEN, B. C. WEBBER.

Business Meteorology: A. W. DOUGLAS, Chairman, Simmons Hardware Co.; St. Louis, Mo.; J. C. ALTER, F. A. CARPENTER, J. P. FINLEY, H. B. Newhall, H. E. WILLIAMS, W. WOOD.

Marine Meteorology: JAMES H. SCARR, Chairman, Weather Bureau, Whitehall Building, New York City; F. G. TINGLEY, Vice-Chairman; E. A. Beals, E. LESTER JONES, J. H. KIMBALL, G. W. LITTLEHALES, F. A. YOUNG.

Aeronautical Meteorology: CHARLES T. MENOHER, Chairman, U. S. Air Service, Washington, D. C.; C. C. CULVER, Vice-Chairman; W. R. Blair, F. A. CarPENTER, V. G. COFFIN, J. C. EDGERTON, W. R. GREGG, C. N. KEYSER, AlexANDER MCADIE.

Hydrological Meteorology: ROBERT E. HORTON, Chairman, R. D. No. 1, Voorheesville, N. Y.; W. F. V. ATKINSON, X. H. GoODNOUGH, A. J. HENRY, H. R. LEACH, C. H. LEE, J. WARREN SMITH, J. T. WHISTLER.


Several hundred extra copies of the BULLETIN are printed monthly and may be had at 10 cents each on application to the Publisher. Subscriptions are $1 a year.

Entered as second-class matter March 1, 1920, at the Post Office at Easton, Pennsylvania, under the Act of August 24, 1912.




Published Monthly by the American Meteorological Society
Publication office: 207 Church Street, Easton, Pa.


Vol. 1

No. 10


To be held in Chicago December 28-30, 1920.

The third meeting of the American Meteorological Society will be held in a affiliation with the American Association for the Advancement of Science during its convocation week, just after Christmas. This will be our first big meeting, closing the first year of the Society's existence. Chicago is within reach of most members of the Society, so there should be a good attendance and a full program of papers.


The By-Laws of the Society include the following provisions regarding the scientific program of meetings:


It shall be the duty of the President to deliver an address before the Society at the Annual Meeting next succeeding his first election as President of the Society.


1. Only those titles of papers shall be listed on the preliminary program of a meeting of the Society for which abstracts, ready for publication, are in the hands of the Secretary. The Council shall be empowered to reject, or to order read by title, or in abstract, any paper submitted for the program of a meeting. 2. A separate program shall be announced for each session, due allowance being made for the discussion. Each session shall begin with the papers announced for that session, even when the program of the preceding session has not been completed. Short papers will, in general, come first in each session.

3. When two or more papers are offered by the same fellow or member, one only of these, unless there is sufficient time, will be assigned a place on the regular program, the others being placed in a supplementary program, to be called for, if time permits.

4. Papers received after the program has been printed will be placed in the supplementary program.

5. Except by special action of the officers in charge of a meeting, or by vote of the Society, the time allowed for the presentation of a paper shall be that stipulated by the author and allotted for it on the program. The presiding officer, after giving two minutes' notice, shall enforce this By-Law. Titles and abstracts should be in the hands of the Secretary by December 10 (address C. F. Brooks, Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C.).

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