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The election of officers and councilors is provided for as follows in the Constitution:


1. The officers of the Society, with other members of the Council, shall be elected by ballot at the Annual Meeting each year. At least eight weeks before the Annual Meeting the Secretary shall send to each fellow and member of the Society a request for nominations, specifiying the offices which are to be filled. The name of every candidate nominated by not less than a combined total of twenty fellows and members shall be printed on the official ballot; except, if a person is nominated for two or more offices, other than Secretary and Treasurer, his name shall appear for only that one for which he received the largest number of votes. The ballot shall also contain the name of a candidate proposed by the Council for each office, and blank spaces in which the voter may substitute other names. A copy of the official ballot shall be sent to each member not less than four weeks before the Annual Meeting. Such a ballot, if marked by a qualified voter to indicate his choice, and if returned to the Secretary in a sealed envelope, bearing the name of the voter, shall be counted at the Annual Meeting. A ballot properly marked and endorsed by a qualified voter may be cast in person at the Annual Meeting. A majority of all votes cast in person or by letter ballot shall be necessary for election. In case of failure to secure a majority for any office, the fellows and members present at the Annual Meeting shall choose by preferential ballot between the two having the highest number of votes, or, in the case of Councilors, among the five having the highest number of votes, except as provided in Section 2.

2. The Council shall be so constituted that a majority of its members shall not belong professionally to the same institution.

3. The term of office shall be one year for all officers and three years for councilors, five to be elected each year.

4. No fellow shall be elected as President more than two years in succession. 5. If an office for any reason becomes vacant, the vacancy shall be filled by the Council for the remainder of the term.

As the officers and councilors for 1920 could not be elected in strict accordance with the Constitution, the balloting by mail or in person at the annual meeting in December, 1920, will cover the offices of President, Vice-President, Secretary, Treasurer, and 15 councilors.

Article VI provides that

"The officers, the last two ex-presidents, and a total of fifteen other fellows of the Society, to be elected in the manner specified in Article VII, shall constitute a Council, which shall have general charge of the affairs of the Society." The word "fellows" was italicized here to draw attention to the fact that only fellows are eligible to office, and therefore that the nominations should not go outside the list of fellows.


BAKER, O. E., Office of Farm Management, Washington, D. C. [Effect of climate and weather on agriculture, portrayed graphically in Atlas of American Agriculture (of which he is in charge).]

BEALS, EDWARD ALDEN, Weather Bureau, San Francisco, Calif. [District forecaster, especially interested in meteorological problems of the Pacific.] (Comm. on Marine Meteorology.)

BENTLEY, WILSON A., Jericho, Vt. [Snow-crystal photography.]

BIGELOW, FRANK H., Director, Solar and Magnetic Observatory, Pilar, F. C. C. A., Argentina. [Circulation of the atmosphere.]

[Mathematical deter

BLAIR, THOMAS A., Weather Bureau, Dubuque, Iowa. mination of the effects of weather on the yields of crops.]

BLAIR, WILLIAM R., Meteorological Serv. Signal Corps, Washington, D. C. [Aerological researches.] (Councilor, 1920. Comm. on Aeronautical Meteorology.) BOWEN, WILLIAM S., 405 West 118th St., New York City. [Experiments in ascensional rate of pilot balloons. Aerological instruction in Signal Corps.] BOWIE, EDWARD H., Supervising Forecaster, Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C. [Types and movements of cyclones and anticyclones.] (Councilor, 1920; Comm. on Corporation Membership. Comm. on Research.) BOWMAN, ISAIAH, Director, American Geographical Society, Broadway at 156th St., New York City. [Meteorology of Peru.]

BROOKS, CHARLES F., Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C. [U. S. Snowfall. Crop phenology. Ocean meteorology. Clouds. Meteorological instruc

tion.] (Secretary, 1920. Chairman Membership Comm.; Comm. on Corporation Membership.)

CARBONELL, LUIS, Director, Observatorio Nacional, Casa Blanca, Habana, Cuba. [Some hurricanes.]


CARPENTER, FORD A., Mgr., Department of Meteorology and Aeronautics, Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce, Rm. 501, Central Building, Los Angeles, Calif. [Climatic surveying as guide in laying out citrous orchards. nautical meteorology.] (Comm. on Aeronautical Meterology; Comm. on Business Meteorology.)

CHURCH, J. E. JR., University of Nevada, Reno, Nev. [Snow surveying.] CLINE, I. M., District Forecaster, Weather Bureau, New Orleans, La. [Prediction of hurricane paths, with, aid of tide observations. Weather and diseases.] CORNTHWAITE, H. G., Ass't. Chief Hydrographer, Balboa Heights, Canal Zone. [Climatology of Panama.] (Comm. on Physiological Meteorology.) Cox, HENRY J., Weather Bureau, Chicago, Ill. [(District forecaster.) Weather and climate of Chicago. Meteorology of Wisconsin cranberry bogs. Meteorological survey of North Carolina mountain region.] (Councilor, 1920. Chmn. Comm. on Commercial Meteorology.)

DAVIS, WILLIAM MORRIS, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. ["Elementary Meteorology."]

DAY, PRESTON C., Chief of Climatological Division, Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C. [Climatology.]

DOUGLASS, A. E., Director Steward Observatory, Tucson, Ariz. [Tree-rings as index to climatic fluctuations.]

DOUGLAS, ARCHER WALL, Vice-President, Simmons Hardware Co., St. Louis, Mo. [Pre-manufacture forecasts of probable demand for different goods as controlled in part by probable seasonal departures of the weather.] (Councilor, 1920. Chmn. Comm. on Business Meteorology. Comm. on Agricultural Meteorology.)

FASSIG, OLIVER L., District Forecaster, Weather Bureau, San Juan, P. R. [Weather and climate of Baltimore.]

FERGUSSON, S. P.,Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C. [Instruments.] (Comm. on Research.)

FERRAZ, J. DE SAMPAIO, Directoria de Meteorologia, Morro do Castello, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. [Inaugurated weather forecasting from daily synoptic charts in Brazil.]

FINLEY, J. P., 350 West 58th St., New York City. [Tornadoes of the United
States.] (Comm. on Business Meteorology; present interest-weather in-
FRANKENFIELD, H. C., Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C. [Weather fore-
casting. Rivers and floods.] (Comm. on Commercial Meteorology.)
GOODNOUGH, X. H., Comm. on Water Supply, etc., Rm. 141, State House,
Boston, Mass. [Rainfall and water supply.] (Comm. on Hydrological

GREELY, A. W., Hidden House, Conway Center, N. H. ["American Weather."] GREGG, WILLIS RAY, Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C. [Aerology.] (Comm. on Aeronautical Meterology.)


HENRY, A. J., Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C. [Meteorology in general. Weather forecasting. Rivers and floods.] (Comm. Hydrological Meteorology.) HORTON, ROBERT E., Consulting Hydraulic Engineer, Voorheesville, N. Y. [Hydrological meteorology.] (Treasurer, 1920. Chmn. Comm. on Hydrological Meterology; Chmn. Comm. on Corporation Membership.) HUMPHREYS, WILLIAM J., Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C. ["Physics of the Air."] (Vice-President, 1920.)

HUNTINGTON, ELLSWORTH, Yale University, New Haven, Conn.

climate. Effect of weather and climate on man.] (Councilor, 1920. Chmn. Comm. on Physiological Meteorology.)

JAMESON, P. R., Supt. and Works Mgr., Taylor Instrument Cos., Rochester, N. Y. [Construction and uses of meteorological instruments.] JEFFERSON, MARK, 205 Normal St., Ypsilanti, Mich. [American climatography.] KEYSER, C. N., Rm. 1905, Navy Bldg., Washington, D. C. [Meteorological work of the Navy.] (Councilor, 1920. Comm. on Aeronautical Meteorology; Comm. on Membership.)

KIMBALL, HERBERT H., Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C. [Solar radiation observations and investigations.] (Comm. on Research.)

KIMBALL, J. H., Weather Bureau, New York City. [Practical applications of meteorology, especially in marine work.] (Comm. on Marine Meteorology.) KINCER, JOSEPH B., Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C. [Climatography of the United States. Weather and crops.]

LITTLEHALES, GEORGE W., Hydrographic Office, Navy Dept., Washington, D.

C. [Physical oceanography.] (Comm. on Marine Meteorology.) MARVIN, CHARLES F., Chief, U. S. Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C.

struments. Mathematics in meteorology.] (Councilor, 1920. Chmn. Comm. on Research.)

MEISINGER, C. LEROY, Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C. [Pressure and wind charts aloft. Aeronautical meteorology.]

MENOHER, CHARLES T., Director, U. S. Air Service, Washington, D. C.

plication of meteorology in aeronautics.] (Councilor, 1920. Chmn. Comm. on Aeronautical Meteorology.)

MILHAM, WILLIS I., Williams College, Williamstown, Mass. ["Meteorology."] (Comm. on Meteorological Instruction.)

MILLÁS, JOSÉ CARLOS, Observatorio Nacional, Habana, Cuba. [Hurricanes. Mathematics in meteorology.] (Councilor, 1920.)

MILLER, ERIC R., Weather Bureau, Madison, Wis. [Solar radiation. Mathematics of atmospheric circulation.]

MCADIE, ALEXANDER, Director, Blue Hill Observatory (Harvard University), Readville, Mass. ["Principles of aerography."] (Comm. on Aeronautical Meteorology; Comm. on Research.)

PAINE, GEORGE PORTER, 20 Walker St., Cambridge, Mass. [Mathematics of atmospheric motions.]

PALMER, ANDREW H., Weather Bureau, San Francisco, Calif. [Weather and climate of California.] (Comm. on Membership.)

PATTERSON, J., Meteorological Office, Toronto, Canada. [Aerology.]

REED, WILLIAM G., Care Geo. H. McFadden & Bro., 121 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. [Economics of frost.]

RITCHIE, JOHN JR., Chief of News Service, Mass. Inst. Tech., Cambridge, Mass. [Inauguration of local weather maps.]

SCARR, JAMES H., Weather Bureau, Whitehall Building, New York City. [Applications of meteorology.] (Councilor, 1920. Chmn. Comm. on Marine Meteorology.)

SMITH, J. WARREN, Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C. ["Agricultural meteorology." (Councilor, 1920. Chmn. Comm. on Agricultural Meteorology. Comm. on Hydrological Meteorology.)

STUPART, R. F., Director, Meteorological Office, Toronto, Canada. [Seasonal anomalies of the weather.] (Councilor, 1920.)

TALMAN, C. FITZHUGH, Librarian, Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C. [Literature of meteorology. Meteorological nomenclature.] (Councilor, 1920. Chmn. Comm. on Public Information.)

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THIESSEN, A. H., District Forecaster, Weather Bureau, Denver, Colo. [Fore-
casting. Visibility. Local climatology.] (Comm. on Commercial Meteor-
VARNEY, BURTON M., Dept. of Geography, University of California, Berkeley,
Calif. [Meteorological instruction.]

VON HERRMANN, C. F., Weather Bureau, Atlanta, Ga.
teorology. Rainfall and floods.]

[Mathematics in me

WARD, ROBERT DEC., Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. [Climatology
of the United States. "Climate."] (President, 1920.)

WEST, FRANK L., Utah Agricultural College, Logan, Utah. [Formulae to ex-
press the daily and annual temperature characteristics of a place.] (Coun-
cilor, 1920, Comm. on Meteorological Instruction.)
WILLIAMS, H. E., Care Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C. [Commercial
applications of meteorology.] (Comm. on Commercial Meteorology.)
WILSON, WILFRED M., Dept. of Meteorology, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N. Y.,
also Section Director, U. S. Weather Bureau, Ithaca, N. Y. [Climate and
crops in New York. Meteorological instruction.] (Councilor, 1920, Chmn.
Comm. on Meteorological Instruction.)


Any amendments proposed for the Constitution or By-Laws should be submitted to the Secretary at once in order that they may be voted on by mail ballot as well as in person at the annual meeting. Business matters to be considered at the meeting should also be brought to the attention of the Secretary at an early date, for publication prior to the meeting.




In the campaign for fresh air and for a rational utilization of meteorological conditions in promoting health, it is easy to go too far. On the one hand, students of ventilation do harm by attempting to find the ideal temperature and then to keep the air at exactly that point without variation. On the other hand, another group of extremists have advocated exposure to the cold and to severe changes to a degree that is clearly harmful. The middle ground, recommended in the following quotation by Mr. Cyrus H. Eshleman of the United States Weather Bureau at Ludington, Mich., seems to the Committee on Physiological Meteorology to strike a happy mean. If meteorologists would advance the popular appreciation of their subject, they may well help to disseminate his ideas.-Ellsworth Huntington, Chairman.

The ideal conditions.-The meteorological conditions most conducive to health for persons seated indoors are, temperature between 65° and 70° F., relative humidity between 50 and 75 per cent., air movement slight but positive. For persons moving about, a temperature 10 degrees or more lower and air movement more rapid are desirable.

Unwise practices and protective methods.-Assuming that these conditions are desirable and that departures should be avoided, the most flagrant violations are: I. The unwise change to lighter clothing in spring and fall, once for all, without regard to the relapses of weather that almost always follows. A warm spell of weather comes in May or June and heavy clothes are replaced by light.


A few weeks later there is a change to cooler weather but the light clothes are kept on. It is wiser to keep both sets of clothes at hand and to interchange them with marked changes of weather until the weather becomes permanently warm. Similar measures should be used in fall. In many houses the rooms are cooler for several months after fires go out than they were during the winter; the clothing, therefore, should be no lighter.

2. Along the sea and lake shores changes of wind direction often cause rapid changes of temperature-as much as 10 or 15 degrees in a few minutes. At such times wraps should be worn.


Thousands of persons have the same amount of cover from the time they fall asleep until they awake in the morning, though the temperature may fall 20 degrees or more within the room. This is a severe strain on the vitality. The habit of waking in the night and adding covers should be formed. In arranging bed covers many persons fail to put heat-retaining layers beneath them. Paper is an excellent non-conductor, and a few thicknesses of wrapping paper immediately under the sheet or blanket lessens probably by one-half the covering needed. Many persons fail to wear nightcaps. One would not go out-of-doors bare-headed; but it is a common practice to lie all night in a cold room. Freedom from illness due to weather conditions is largely in proportion to the effort exerted in that direction.-Cyrus H. Eshleman.


Waterworks Association Awards Medal for Meteorological Work.-At its annual convention in Holyoke, Mass., September 8th, 1920, the New England Waterworks Association awarded the Dexter Brackett Memorial Medal to Robert E. Horton, for a paper entitled "The Measurement of Rainfall and Snow." This Medal is awarded annually for the best paper presented to the Society during the year.

As illustrating the value and importance of matters relating to meteorology and hydrology in engineering work, it may be noted that in addition to this instance medals and prizes have several times been awarded by the American Society of Civil Engineers for papers on Rainfall, Evaporation and related subjects. There are several such prizes and medals established by engineering societies which are available for meritorious papers relating to engineering aspects and applications of meteorology. Some of these are available only to members of the Societies, but others are open to competition from non-members. Waterworks Men to Study Water Losses.-At its annual convention in Holyoke, Mass., September 8th, 1920, the New England Waterworks Association passed a resolution calling for the appointment of a Committee to study and report to the Association on the various evaporative losses taking place from reservoirs and waterworks drainage areas. It is understood that the work of the Committee will relate to such water losses or deductions from rainfall as result both directly and indirectly from evaporation.

Attention will be paid especially to interception of rainfall by trees, direct evaporation from soils, lakes, and reservoir surfaces, and transpiration by vegetation. Discussion in conjunction with the matter developed the fact that in some instances the available yield of water supply streams has been developed through its apparent limit. The present costliness of obtaining new supplies has raised the question whether it may not be possible in cases where the Water

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