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Vol. 1

Published Monthly by the American Meteorological Society
Publication office: 207 Church Street, Easton, Pa.



No. 2

The various committees of the American Meteorological Society are becoming active to an extent indicated by the preliminary statements of plans and such notes as follow. The committees will we'come correspondence from fellows and members giving suggestions or submitting items for the BULLETIN; also they will try to take care of requests for information or helpful suggestions. The committees can render the best service only by having the interest and hearty coöperation of the whole Society.


Commtitee: C. F. Brooks, Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C.
A. H. Palmer, Weather Bureau, San Francisco, Calif.

J. W. Redway, Mount Vernon, N. Y.

Lieut. C. N. Keyser, U. S. N., Room 1905 Navy Bldg., Washington, D. C.

Although these men may technically constitute the Membership [-getting] Committee, really all fellows and members of the Society should try actively to increase the membership of the Society. The Society has for its aims the advancement and diffusion of meteorological knowledge and the development of its manifold applications to human affairs. These aims can be realized best with the largest backing of interested members. In so far as we fail to reach those who might become backers of our projects, just so much short of our possibilities shall we fall. Copies of the January BULLETIN with application cards for membership have been sent to about 500 selected coöperative observers of the Weather Bureau, 1000 more have gone to astronomers, engineers, science teachers, business men and others who would probably be interested; and the officials in charge of all the regular weather bureau stations in the United States and Canada have been asked to distribute copies locally to prospective members. A still larger body of people will be reached through notes about the American Meteorological Society published in a number of scientific periodicals. Everybody: send the names and addresses of people or groups of people to whom sample copies and application card should be sent, or write to the chairman how many you personally would like to distribute.-C. F. Brooks, Chairman.


Committee: W. M. Wilson, Department of Meteorology, Cornell University, and
Section Director, Weather Bureau, Ithaca, N. Y.

W. I. Milham, Dept. of Astronomy, Williams College, Williamstown,

ceptions the activities of the Committee must be by non-assembled conferences by letter, memoranda, etc.

Objects. It must be recognized that with some exceptions no important body of strong independent meteorologists exist at the present time in the United States. Much of the work to be done is very largely of an educational nature, which should aim to arouse interest as well as to direct endeavor in appropriate lines. Within the limitations of the Society, it seems these earlier objects can be best carried out by discussion of topics, problems, and questions in meteorology requiring more intensive studies; the indication of sources of information thereon to those interested in the pursuit of any particular line, and suggestions as to where it might be possible to secure opportunities for investigation or the placing of problems that might be taken up in laboratories or institutions, offices, etc. To some extent, basic methods, mathematical, physical or otherwise not already familiar to prospective students, might be outlined or indicated. Much of this can no doubt be done through the medium of the BULLETIN.—C. F. Marvin, Chairman.

Scholarships in meteorology and oceanography.—The American Scandinavian Foundation of, 25 W. 45th St., New York has announced two scholarships, each yielding $1000 annually, in meteorology and oceanography. It is desired that two Americans each year study at the Bergen Museum, the one in meteorology under the direction of Professor Bjerknes, and the one in oceanography under Professor Bjorn Helland-Hansen. This is an excellent opportunity for students interested in these subjects. The American Scandinavian Foundation wishes to obtain information concerning students who are qualified for these scholarships. Applications must be made by April 1.

Quotation. A medium which has such qualities as to be capable of acting and reacting in this delicate manner [transmitting the diverse sounds of a great orchestra and chorus], and at the same time when moved bodily with the velocity of a tornado may cut down trees and buildings as if by a giant steel knife, is a medium the possibilities of which for future research we, at present, only dimly perceive. Maj. Gen. G. O. Squier, Aeronautics in the United States at the signing of the Armistice, Nov. 11, 1918 (A. I. E. E., New York), p. 24.


Committee: Ellsworth Huntington, Yale University, New Haven, Conn.
Guy Hinsdale, Hot Springs, Va. [Medicine.]

G. T. Palmer, Board of Health, Detroit, Mich. [Sanitary Engi-

J. W. Redway, Mount Vernon, N. Y. [Dust, Geography.]

H. G. Cornthwaite, Assistant Chief Hydrographer, Balboa Heights,
C. Z. [Tropics.]

Plans. The Physiological Committee has been organized so recently that there has been no time for an interchange of views. Moreover, its field is so large and is tilled by men in so many different professions that a definite, coherent plan cannot easily be evolved. Nevertheless, the chairman feels that the following statement of general purposes is permissible, although it will doubtless be greatly modified as soon as the Committee gets together.

(1) One of the main purposes of the Physiological Committee is to help in securing cooperation between meteorologists on the one hand and physicians on the other. The meteorologist furnishes a vast grist of facts: the physician

applies those facts to the concrete problem of the health of the community and of the individual. Between the two stand four groups: (A) the climatologists who are primarily geographers and who study the relation of climate to countries and civilizations; (B) the climatologists who are primarily physicians, and who study the relation of climate to disease; (C) the ecologists who study the relation of environment-especially the climatic environment-to all sorts of biological activities including those of plants and animals as well as man; and, (D) the public health engineers who apply the ecological results. One of the things that our particular branch of science most needs today is coöperative investigations in which the meteorologist, climatologist, ecologist, sanitary engineer, and physician all take a share.

(2) In order to bring about this coöperation one of the objects of the Physiological Committee may well be to make the results of each branch of study known to the others. Therefore. it may prove advisable to devise some plan for increasing the degree to which articles and books on health and on ecology are discussed in meteorological and climatological publications, and vice versa. A fuller understanding of the manifold applications of his work to the health of the community would stimulate the meteorologist, while a knowledge of the advances in climatology would much improve the practice of many a physician. (3) Another important step in bringing meteorology and health together is to teach the physician to use meteorology. Aside from perfunctory readings of the thermometer most physicians wholly neglect this important science. This is largely because meteorological instruments and records are not easy to use. Of course anyone can read the thermometer, but that tells very little as to the real effect of the air. Temperature, humidity, movement, variability, and purity all have well-ascertained effects. So, too does sunshine, while pressure and atmospheric electricity are also highly important. Thus at least eight climatic elements need to be considered instead of the one that most people think about. But the physician cannot pay attention to all these, or even to three or four of them unless the meteorologist serves them up to him in the shape of simple and easily used records. Moreover, the physician needs simple instruments which will enable him to ascertain the healthfulness of the atmosphere by a single observation, quickly made and easily interpreted without complex tables. For this purpose the kata-thermometer holds out much promise. If the Physiological Committee could stimulate meteorologists to keep records with this instrument and at the same time to simplify it for everyday use, it would accomplish something really momentous.

(4) To mention only one more of the many good objects toward which the Physiological Committee might direct its energies, there is great need of a widespread campaign of education as to the intimate relation of meteorological conditions to health. One way to accomplish this is to get in touch with good newspaper writers and persuade them to, popularize the most important new articles.-Ellsworth Huntington, Chairman.


Committee: J. Warren Smith, Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C.

A. W. Douglas, Simmons Hardware Co., St. Louis, Mo. [Agri-
cultural Implements.]

Earl S. Johnston, Md. Agr. College, College Park, Md. [Ecology.]
H. E. Horton, Agr. Commissioner, Amer. Steel & Wire Co., Chicago,
Ill. [Supplies.]

A. J. Connor, Met'l. Office, Toronto, Canada [Weather and crops.]

A. D. Hopkins, Bureau Entomology, Dept. Agr., Washington,
D. C. [Phenology.]

Geo. L. Peltier, Agr. College, Auburn, Ala. [Plant diseases.]

The following suggestions for the consideration of the Committee have been received, but have not been discussed by the different members:

Suggested by Mr. Douglas:

"The study of forecasting the weather during the growing crop months in connection with the estimates of the crops made by the Department of Agriculture."

Suggested by Dr. Johnston:

"(1) An effort should be made to introduce courses in meteorology in more of our State and Agricultural Colleges. (2) Research bearing on the relation of climate to plant growth should be stimulated and coördinated. The relation of such environmental components as soil and air temperature, soil and air moisture, light intensity and quality, etc., to plant growth should be worked out quantitatively under controlled conditions and in the field where these components can be measured. I realize the many difficulties in integrating plant growth in terms of instrumental data, but just so sure as the plant is a physical and chemical machine that responds to various environmental components we may hope to make this possible in the future. Before such relations can be worked out it may be necessary to integrate the growth of a given plant in terms of another plant or plants used as standards. The relation between one plant and another is no doubt closer than that between a plant and a set of instruments with reference to the way each responds to the various components of the same environment."

Suggested by the Chairman:

There are three methods of ascertaining the effect of the weather in varying the yield of crops, and of determining the most critical period in the growth and development of crop plants and the most important weather factor at this time, all of which should be encouraged by the Committee:

(1) Laboratory experiments where all the factors affecting growth can be controlled.

(2) A long series of field observations with meteorological instruments exposed near the growing plants, and daily or weekly records made of the rate of growth of field plants.

(3) Mathematical discussions of the relation between weather and crop yields, covering past years.

The Committee will be glad of other suggestions from any member of the Society. These will be discussed by the Committee and working plans for definite work submitted.-J. Warren Smith, Chairman.

California Fruit Growers Exchange brings creation of a meteorological department in the Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce.

"At the request of General Manager G. Harold Powell, Dr. Ford A. Carpenter, for many years meteorologist at the Los Angeles office of the Weather Bureau, and Col. H. B. Hersey, his successor, briefly addressed the directors of the California Fruit Growers Exchange recently.

"Col. Hersey first assured the representatives of the citrus fruit growers that he was going to do all in his power to coöperate with the citrus and other fruit growers. He stated that the bureau would greatly like to do more but that funds had been limited. He stated, however, that an effort was to be made to secure a larger appropriation at the next session of Congress. [Cf. Jan. issue of Bull. Am. Met. Soc., pp. 11-12.]

"Dr. Carpenter addressed the directors as follows:

* * * In Southern California the weather is the basis of our prosperity, and in Los Angeles the largest Chamber of Commerce in the United States has created a department of meteorology and aeronautics

* * *

"The objects of this department so far as meteorology is concerned, may be stated briefly as follows:

"To extend locally the general work of the Federal and State departments in meteorology and applied sciences.

"2. To coördinate past and present air data of every description.

"3. To make climatic comparisons and apply such comparative data.

"4. To make immediately useful all meteorological data in process of being gathered; not necessarily waiting for absolute completion for detailed and exhaustive publication several years after the observations have been made as is often the case in purely governmental work.

"5. To do coöperative climatic surveying; specifically undeveloped tracts suitable for agricultural and horticultural use.

"6. To act as a clearing house for all local climatic investigations.



There has been made an

intensive climatic survey of 16,00y acres of the Palos Verdes Rancho between Redondo and San Pedro, where evero climatic feature was carefully surveyed and studied during the past five years. * * * Reversing the usual procedure, the tract of land was not selected for the experiment but the experiment was made for the land. A word as to the methods of making this climatic survey * ** * Eight stations were established throughout the 16,000 acres and they were equipped with standardized and synchronized meteorological instruments. Apparatus recording temperature, humidity, wind velocity, rainfall and sunshine were scattered throughout this tract. Although recording instruments were used, daily eye observations were made of their behavior and corrections afterwards applied. The intricate mass of accumulated data was reduced to comparative profiles, and monthly studies were made of the various elements in their direct relation to agriculture. The fact that the entire region is without irrigation and dependent upon temperature, humidity and wind rather than rainfall, and also that the soil was practically the same over the district under study, reduced the number of factors to a very few. This simplified the problem.

"The success of the work on the Palos Verdes tract makes possible other direct applications of meteorology. In November, 1919, another intensive climatic survey was begun in a region totally different in topography and climatology to that of the Palos Verdes. The tract, many times larger, is located over a hundred miles from the coast. All of the property has an elevation exceeding 1,000 feet above sea level. An acreage exceeding 20,000 will probably come under an irrigation system which will shortly be commenced: so, coincident with the distribution of the water a year and a half or two years from now, the kind, character and distribution of the fruit or crop or variations in horticultural or agricultural planting will be satisfactorily and safely determined. There will be no experimenting as to climatic environment for that will be definitely and positively determined before the water is ready for the land.

"The climatic studies herein briefly sketched inaugurate is new era in practicalizing scientific weather study. As truly as agriculture is the foundation of commerce so climate is the foundation of agriculture. The climate of a place determines its suitability for commerce, agriculture and residence. More than half of the mistakes in locating cities, farms or homes would be prevented were it possible to have previously known in detail the varying degrees of heat, cold, air moisture and air movement. It is firmly believed that subsequent developments made in accordance with such data would be uniformly successful.

"This is a fundamental condition affecting the production of necessities and my observations and study of air during a residence of more than a score of years in Southern California leads me to this conclusion:

"It may be definitely stated that upon temperature, moisture and wind rests the greater part of success or failure of any enterprise having to do with natural resources. Intensive climatic surveys are as necessary in improving tracts of land as other surveys having to do with water resources, transportation and markets."-The California Citrograph, Feb., 1920.

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