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Committee: Robert E. Horton, Consulting Hydraulic Engineer, Voorheesville,

N. Y.

X. H. Goodnough, Committee on Water Supply, etc., State House,
Boston, Mass.

Harry R. Leach, C. E., Myton, Utah.

John T. Whistler, C. E., Federal Reserve Bank, Denver, Colo.

A. J. Henry, Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C.

W. F. V. Atkinson, Forest Engineer, Sault Ste. Marie, Ont.

Charles H. Lee, State Water Commissioner, 74 New Montgomery

St., San Francisco, Calif.

J. Warren Smith, Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C.

Some lines of action proposed.—(1) As there is at the present time considerable demand, especially from engineers, from Waterworks officials, and from other sources, for additional rainfall stations, it seems appropriate that an investigation should be carried out by the Society to determine what, if any, additional rainfall stations are most needed. For this purpose, it is suggested that members of this Society communicate their ideas on this matter, and that letters be sent through the proper channels to a selected list of about 100 persons interested in rainfall from an engineering, agricultural, botanical, flood prediction, or general meteorological view-point, requesting each one to state the following: (a) To give in order of their importance a list of additional rainfall stations which in his opinion are the most desirable to establish in his state or locality. In this connection it should be pointed out that a map showing the locations of existing rain gages in each state is contained in the annual number of the publication entitled "Climatological Data," published by the U. S. Weather Bureau, which map should be consulted in each instance to avoid dup'ication of stations. (b) The reason why each additional station is desired should be mentioned. (c) The person suggesting the establishment of a rain gage should suggest if possible the name of a person, institution, or corporation who would probably be available as a coöperative observer.

Prof J. Warren Smith believes that

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"An expression of opinion should be obtained also in connection with temperature records. Do we have enough of these? Do we have too many at present, and should part of the money now expended in that connection be put into more rainfall records?"

(2) Soil surface temperatures are of great importance as being one of the main factors governing the amount of evaporation loss from soils. They are also of great importance as being one of the main factors governing the amount of infiltration, and hence having an important bearing on the ground water supply available for agriculture, wells and streams, and affecting the occurrence of floods. While data of underground temperatures at considerable depths have frequently been obtained, there appear to be only very meager records of soil temperatures directly at the surface, or within say one or two inches from the surface. It is suggested that steps be taken to determine the present state of knowledge of the relation of soil surface temperatures, and their diurnal range, relative to the air temperature, with a view to devising means whereby better and more complete data of soil surface temperatures may be obtained.

In this connection, coöperation with the Ecological Society of America and the Carnegie Institution, which are carrying out a survey of soil temperatures throughout the U. S., may be desirable.

(3) Data of water surface temperatures, although of fundamental importance in relation to evaporation, are extremely meager. While there are perhaps

20 or 30 fairly long records of water surface temperatures which have been maintained in the U. S., it appears that in most cases temperature readings have been taken but once a day. In some instances the readings are taken in the forenoon, when the water surface is generally cooler than the air, and in other instances readings are taken after the maximum, when the water temperature is generally higher than the air. Some records show average water surface temperatures generally higher than the air temperatures, as is true for example in connection with several records in New England, whereas other records show water surface temperatures in lakes and reservoirs of the same character considerably lower than the air temperatures. In other instances there is some disagreement in this respect between the different records of temperature of the same water surface. This suggests the desirability of using maximum and minimum thermometers, to obtain the range and approximately correct mean of water surface temperature. It seems appropriate that the Committee on Hydrologic Meteorology should ascertain the present state of knowledge of water surface temperatures in the U. S., and suggest methods of securing more and better records of this character.

(4) In connection with evaporation, it seems worth while to point out the fact that while there are numerous evaporation records now being maintained in the U. S., the instances are extremely rare where records of water surface temperatures in evaporation pans are regularly maintained.

It seems proper that the Committee on Hydrology should give consideration to the matter of securing greater uniformity in the maintenance of evaporation records, especially with reference to securing in all cases, so far as possible, data of necessary meteorologic factors, especially water and air temperatures, wind velocity and humidity, necessary for the correlation of evaporation with the meteorologic environment.

In this connection it may be noted that ordinarily maximum and minimum thermometers mounted on a suitable float have been satisfactorily used for the purpose of obtaining water temperature records in evaporation pans. (See Monthly Weather Review, Dec., 1919, Vol. 47, pp. 556–557, fig.) —Robert E. Horton, Chairman.


Committee: A. W. Douglas, Simmons Hardware Co., St. Louis, Mo.

H. E. Williams, Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C.

J. Cecil Alter, Weather Bureau, Salt Lake City, Utah.

H. B. Newhall, Jr., 90 West St., Cor. Cedar, New York City.
Ford A. Carpenter, Consulting Meteorologist, Room 501 Central
Building, Los Angeles, Calif.

Walter Wood, 400 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa.

As a tentative proposition I suggest that each member of the Committee endeavor to develop by study and investigation the effect which the weather has upon the kind of business with which he is familiar, or any other business which may come within the scope of our experience and study, and then make it our joint endeavor to formulate some working theory and plan that will be of value to the business world.-A. W. Douglas, Chairman.

Mr. Williams adds:

"As I see it, the main thing to be done in order to make meteorology of value to the business interests, is to enlighten these interests as to the benefits to be derived from the Weather Bureau forecasts and warnings.'

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Bank gives meteorological exhibit.-A Los Angeles bank recently planned an extensive meteorological exhibit in their windows. Col. Hersey, official in charge of the local office of the Weather Bureau, prepared two windows full of statistical information for Los Angeles, under the caption, United States Weather Bureau, and the Department of Meteorology and Aeronautics of the Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce contributed a set of large photographs showing aerial trips by balloon and airplane with aerial views of Los Angeles, and also loaned the bank a set of meteorological instruments, comprising a thermo-hygrograph of the Richard type, a barograph, a barometer, and an aviator's barometer. The bank officials state that this exhibit of the Weather Bureau and the Chamber of Commerce has created more interest than any yet made in the bank's history of such exhibits.-Ford A. Carpenter.


Effect of weather and climate on transportation by land and by inland waterways.

Committee: H. J. Cox, Weather Bureau, Chicago, Ill.

H. C. Frankenfield, Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C.
E. A. Beals, Weather Bureau, San Francisco, Calif.
Wm. C. Devereaux, Weather Bureau, Cincinnati, Ohio.
Herbert W. Richardson, Weather Bureau, Duluth, Minn.
John A. Sutherland, Taylor Instrument Co., Chicago, Ill.
A. W. Douglas, Simmons Hardware Co., St. Louis, Mo.

The work of this committee will, doubtless, impinge upon that of other existing or possible future committees of the Society, such as those on Forecasting, Hydrological Meteorology, Marine Meteorology, Business Meteorology, Agricultural Meteorology, Climatology, Instruments, etc. The activities of the Committee on Commercial Meteorology should be largely confined to the study of the relation between the transportation, both on land and sea, and the forecasts and warnings of the Weather Bureau, especially in connection with storms, cold waves, floods, etc.; and the practical application generally of studies prosecuted in the various subdivisions of meteorology, whether in connection with agriculture, engineering, or manufacture.

The character of the work of the Weather Bureau varies in different sections of the country, and at different seasons of the year. In the more northerly and rigorous sections the subject of shipment of perishable goods, because of low temperature and possible blockades, is of much importance, and, in a modified degree, even, in the central districts, Conditions involving snow and cold are practically never of consequence in the South as regards transportation, but there they have a bearing upon agricultural success during a large portion of the year.

On the Great Lakes and along the coasts the storm-warning service is of paramount importance, and the value of this branch of the work reaches its maximum off the south Atlantic states and in the Gulf of Mexico during the hurricane season when the distribution of warnings must become most effective.

The navigation on our inland rivers and the floating of rafts of logs and ties depend much upon the height of the water, as do the commercial activities which operate close to the streams in time of flood.-H. J. Cox, Chairman.


Committee: J. H. Scarr, Weather Bureau, New York City.

J. H. Kimball, Weather Bureau, New York City.

G. W. Littlehales, Hydrographic Office, Navy Dept., Washington,
D. C.

E. Lester Jones, Supt., U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Washing-
ton, D. C.

F. G. Tingley, Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C.

F. A. Young, Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C.

The objects of this Committee are fundamentally to increase the volume and accuracy of marine meteorological information and to facilitate the coördination and immediate use of weather observations made at sea. These aims can be furthered not only by providing in the BULLETIN an informal means of exchange of notes and views, but also by working with the Weather Bureau and Hydrographic Office to carry out their earnest endeavors in these directions.

Unusual period of gales on the Atlantic, Dec. 20-Jan. 10.—The December 1919 issue of the Monthly Weather Review (Gov't Printing Office, Washington, D. C.), just published, tells (p. 886) of the following experience of the British S. S. Hotham Newton which "on her voyage from the British Isles to New York ran into a succession of gales, and on only two days from the time she left Swansea until January 6 were wind velocities of less than 40 miles an hour recorded at time of observation." The weather map of the North Atlantic for Dec. 31, 1919 published as chart XVI in the December Review shows two intense cyclones centered approximately at lat. 45° N., long. 57° W., and at 51° N., 22° W. Charts for Jan. 1 and 2 are to be published in the January Review.


Committee: Major General C. T. Menoher, Air Service, Washington, D. C.
Col. C. C. Culver, Headquarters U. S. Air Service, 7th and B Sts.,
N. W., Washington, D. C. [Vice-chairman.]

Lt. Col. W. R. Blair, Meteorological Service, Signal Corps, Wash-
ington, D. C.

J. G. Coffin, Research Dept., Curtiss Eng'g. Corp., Garden City,
L. I., N. Y.

Ford A. Carpenter, Dept. of Meteorology and Aeronautics, Los
Angeles Chamber of Commerce, Los Angeles, Calif.

J. C. Edgerton, Aerial Mail Service, P. O. Dept., Washington,
D. C.

W. R. Gregg, Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C.

Lieut. C. N. Keyser, U. S. N., Room 1905 Navy Bldg., Wash-
ington, D. C.

Alexander McAdie, Harvard University, Blue Hill Observatory,
Readville, Mass.

The objects of this committee are:

(1) To increase aviators' knowledge of meteorology and particularly of those conditions which most affect the flight of airplanes (cf. “Effect of winds and other weather conditions on the flight of airplanes," Monthly Weather Review, Aug., 1919, Vol. 47, pp. 523–532, 6 figs.).

(2) To extend free-air observations by means of pilot balloons, kites and clouds, and also, though not so commonly, by airplanes, sounding balloons (not manned, but carrying recording apparatus), manned balloons and dirigibles; these observations to be telegraphed or mailed to the Weather Bureau at Washington, for use in making aviation forecasts or as a basis for future forecasting. (3) To aid in the selection for aerial travel of the best regular routes, flying levels, and landing fields or bays.

(4) To collect and publish notes on unusual weather experiences of fliers, and such other items as may be of interest.



Air service training enlisted men in meteorology.-The "Air Service News Letter,
No. 22, January 15, 1920," contains a note on the training of enlisted men at
Carlstrom and March Fields. The new plan is to allow the enlisted men who
are qualified to take training in all phases of flying, and one of the courses in-
cluded is "a general working knowledge of meteorology."

Weather and aviation.-A man who called himself a seaman would be ashamed
to know as little about the sea (or for the air for the matter of that) as the average
airman (using the term either as the daily press or the R. A. F. does) knows
about the air.-Aeronautics (London), Nov. 27, 1919, p. 490.

Meteorology in the Navy.-Realizing the importance of Meteorology in Naval
operations, especially of aircraft, the Navy Department has established, as
part of its training system, a School of Meteorology at the Naval Air Station,
Pensacola, Fla., where officers and men receive training in the science and
practice of meteorology in its relation to the operation of Naval craft. The
School is in charge of Aerological officers of the Navy who were actively engaged
in the work throughout the War, and are intimately acquainted with the Navy's
meteorological needs.

Through the close coöperation existing between the Navy and the Weather
Bureau, the five officers now assigned to meteorological training and duty are
having the opportunity of two months post graduate study at the Central Office
of the Weather Bureau under the specialists of that office.

The course of training for enlisted men covers four months and is open to
men of the service who have had two years of high school, or its equivalent;
special attention being given to their aptitude in the elementary sciences and
mathematics. On completing the course, the men are rated in accordance
with their ability in meteorology and assigned to duty at Naval Air Stations,
Naval Aircraft Tenders and other ships and stations as found necessary.—
C. N. Keyser.


(Vol. 47, pp. 841-911, 10 figs., 16 charts.)

The January issue of the BULLETIN (pp. 6-10) referred to the publication in the
December issue of the Monthly Weather Review of the papers, or excerpts or
abstracts, presented at the St. Louis and New York meetings of the Society,
therefore, these will not be mentioned again in this note on the current issue
of the Monthly Weather Review. Other original contributions are:

A statistical study of weather factors affecting the yield of winter wheat in
Ohio. T. A. Blair. (2 figs. pp. 841-847.)


The statistical method is applied to the problem of determining what are the
important weather factors affecting the growth of winter wheat in Ohio, and their
relative importance. The results are expressed as partial correlation coefficients
and in linear regression equations of the form,

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in which the coefficients are evaluated by least square methods.

Because of the difficulty of securing extensive data for other weather elements,
it is necessary to deal chiefly with temperature and precipitation values. In
general, it is to be expected, because of the relatively large and well-distributed
rainfall of Ohio, that temperature variations will have more influence than
precipitation variations upon the yield.

For the State as a whole, correlations of monthly weather values with the
"condition" reports of the Bureau of Crop Estimates, and with the reported

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