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yields, show no very close relationships. The correlations with condition give a general indication that a wet autumn, a warm and dry winter and spring, especially a warm March, and a cool and wet May are the most favorable weather conditions. Vield correlations suggest a warm March and June and a cool and dry May as the only important requisites for a good yield.

In Fulton County in northwestern Ohio, and in three counties in the central part of the State, certain 10-day periods in April, May, and June are found to exert a more effective influence on the yield than all other weather conditions combined, except that in Fulton County the March snowfall is also an important factor. It is weather conditions during these 10-day periods, especially temperature conditions, that largely determine yield. These periods are connected especially with the jointing, heading, and filling stages in the growth of the plant.

Extracts from the

"Relation of the weather to the yield of wheat in Manitoba," by A. J. Connor, follow Mr. Blair's article. Mr. Connor shows that in the third period of 30 days after sowing, cool and moist conditions with small temperature range postpone the period of heading and make yields greater than those after warm dry weather in this "critical" period.

[NOTE. In the October, 1919 issue of the Monthly Weather Review, p. 700 4 figs., an article by C. J. Root on


"Considering only the elements of total snowfall and mean temperature, it would appear that the winters of light snowfall are followed by good wheat yields, and the winters of heavy snowfall are followed by light yields. However, this may be due in part to the fact that the temperature is less severe in the winters of light snowfall."

Immediately following this (pp. 701-702, fig.) J. Warren Smith, presents some information on the

"EFFECT OF SNOW ON WINTER WHEAT IN OHIO," in which he shows that January snowfalls above the average are usually followed by good wheat yields, and vice versa, but that the reverse is true of March snowfall in comparison with subsequent yields. On the other hand, a persistent snow-cover in January appears to restrict the yield, perhaps on account of smothering. There is little correlation between February snowfall and the subsequent yield, and light snows in March favor good yields.

Note on high free-air wind velocities observed December 16 and 17, 1919 W. R. Gregg. (2 figs.) (pp. 853-854.)

[At Lansing, Mich., the men at the Signal Corps Meteorological station on the morning of Dec. 17 observed a pilot balloon which at a computed height of 7200 meters moved at an apparent velocity of 83 m. p. s., or 186 mi. per hr. It was lost a minute later, after the 31st minute, at a computed horizontal distance of 87 km. As only a single theodolite was used and the height of the balloon was determined from the Signal Corps ascensional rate formula, this observation is somewhat doubtful. Nevertheless, observers at other stations reported velocities increasing rapidly with altitude, but most balloons were lost below a height of 3000 m.

The discussion of the pilot balloon and kite data for all stations brings out the fact that the wind direction aloft corresponded to the direction of the isobars at the 2500-m. level, and that the high velocities were associated with a steep surface temperature gradient northward over the eastern United States.]

Australian droughts. C. Richardson. (p. 860.)

[The recent severe droughts brought forth this note stating that in drought years the temperature gradient between southern Australia and the normal path of passing winter cyclones is weak, and that at the same time the cyclone belt

bends northward west of Australia.

The result is a prevailing flow of dry land winds across the agricultural regions of the South and Southeast.]

Some extracts dealing with the American Signal Corps Meteorological Service in France during the war are reprinted from the 1919 report of the Chief Signal Officer. There is also a translation (pp. 871-874) of French notes on the meteorological service in the German army. It is interesting to see that the army meteorological services were much the same on opposite sides of the battle lines.

There are 22 other notes and abstracts (not counting those covering papers presented before the recent meetings of the Society).

PROGRESS OF BILL INCLUDING WEATHER BUREAU APPROPRIATIONS. (H. R. 12272: An act making appropriations for the Department of Agriculture for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1921.)

Following the passage of this bill in the House, Feb. 14, without any of the increases recommended in the Weather Bureau estimates (see Jan. BULLETIN, pp. 11-12), it was then referred to the Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, which reported it on Mar. 11, with the following changes: (1) In the central office of the Weather Bureau, 16 statutory places were dropped and all but $240 of the salaries was applied to increase the compensation of other positions. (2) For expenses outside of Washington,

"There is an increase... of $70,400.00 to enable the Weather Bureau to restore its services to the standard of efficiency and effectiveness which existed prior to the war, and to provide in a small way for the normal growth of its activities. War conditions made it necessary to curtail many lines of work conducted by the Bureau, which are of great value to agriculture, commerce, and navigation." Committee's report (p. 6).

$54,300 of this increase is for salaries, now sorely needed. (3) The sale of the Bureau's property at Mount Weather, Va., is authorized.

The bill now goes before the Senate, then to conference.

The Reclassification Commission's report submitted to Congress on Mar. 12 provides in a number of ways for the increased efficiency of the Government service, particularly (a) by eliminating the inequalities of compensation for the same work in different branches of the Government, (b) by providing an average increase in salaries of 8 percent as they now stand with the bonus, or of 30 percent above the basic salaries, and (c) by providing for easier promotions. The largest increases in salaries recommended are for the scientific and technical workers.


In conjunction with a meeting of the American Physical Society to be held in Washington on Saturday April 24, and probably on the 23rd as well, there will be a meeting of the American Meteorological Society. Pending definite arrangements, the date has been set for Thursday April 22. Abstracts of papers, with statements as to the time wanted for presentation and whether or not lantern slides will be used, should be in the hands of the Secretary not later than April 1.


On account of the publication of the program of the April meeting of the Society, notes, reports of committees, and all other material for the March Bulletin, should be in the hands of the Secretary by March 1.

Application pending for entry as second-class matter at the Post Office at Easton, Pa.




Vol. 1

Published Monthly by the American Meteorological Society
Publication office: 207 Church Street, Easton, Pa.

MARCH, 1920


No. 3

The second meeting of the American Meteorological Society will be held at the Weather Bureau, 24th and M Sts., N. W., Washington, D. C., on April 22, 1920.

On account of the delay in the issue of the February Bulletin announcing this meeting and calling for titles and abstracts, the following program will probably be enlarged, and, if necessary, an afternoon session added:


Morning Session: 9.30 a.m. to 12 noon.

Opening address, Professor Charles F. Marvin, Chief, U. S. Weather Bureau. 15 min.

10 min.

10 min.

IO min.

The most intense rainfall on record. B. C. Kadel.
The physics of the aurora. W. J. Humphreys. 12 min.
The auroras of March 22-25, 1920. Herbert Lyman.
New aerological apparatus. S. P. Ferguson.
Cloud-base altitudes as shown by disappearance of balloons and kites. O. L.

[blocks in formation]

Some meteorological observations of a bombing pilot in France. Thomas R. Reed. 10 min.

Temperature versus pressure as determinants of wind aloft. W. R. Gregg. Illustrated by lantern slides.

15 min.

12 min.

10 min.
12 min.

Daily wind charts for stated levels. C. LeRoy Meisinger. The nature of sleet and how it is formed. Charles F. Brooks. Temperature scales and thermometer scales. Edgar W. Woolard. Shall we adopt a half-degree Centigrade Absolute scale instead of the Fahrenheit? Charles F. Marvin.

10 min.

Modifying factors in effective temperatures. A. D. Hopkins, Forest Entomologist. 10 min.

Relation of rainfall to the grazing capacity of ranges. J. Warren Smith. 10 min.

10 min.

Project for local forecast studies. R. H. Weightman. A meeting of the Council will be held at 4.30 P.M. On the following two days the American Physical Society will hold its usual Spring meeting, with exhibits at the Bureau of Standards.


Although it is too early for reports of substantial progress on the parts of the committees, various notes on matters with which the committees are concerned have come for publication in the Bulletin.

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