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extended to include Sunday, the 16th. In addition to many highly interesting events such as airplane races, stunting contests, parachute jumping, and aerial sham battles, there was a complete exhibit of all the types of airplanes used in the war, ranging from the giant Handley Page bombers to the tiny naval monoplanes. A balloon company kept a Caquot balloon in the air most of the time, giving frequent exhibitions of raising, lowering and maneuvering the balloon. A dirigible balloon attracted much attention as it maneuvered at a low altitude in the vicinity of the field. The wireless telephone, so arranged that the voiceof the operators could be heard by the crowd, was one of the greatest drawing exhibits; the voice of an officer in a plane several miles away could be heard directing the movements of other planes flying in formation.

While the main interest of the visitors was centered in these spectacular events, there was much attention given to the smaller exhibits. One of these was maintained by the Weather Bureau and included various instruments used in aerological work, a theodolite, a meteorograph, a pilot balloon, and many pictures of the various phases of the work.

Reports on the work of the committees on Corporation Membership, Research, Agricultural Meteorology, Commercial Meteorology, Business Meteorology, Marine Meteorology and Hydrological Meteorology will be published in the next issue of the BULLETIN.


The agricultural appropriation bill has been signed by the President. The increases for the Weather Bureau originally passed by the Senate were stricken out and a further slight reduction made by the elimination of the additional statutory places that were provided in the higher clerical grades.

The amount for out of Washington expenses remains the same as for. the present fiscal year, but the limit on the amount that can be expended by salaries has been increased by $27,500.


Eleven comprehensive and artistic designs for a seal and three for an identification button have been submitted by four fellows and members. Before taking final action the Council would like to see other designs, even if only in rough outline.


The usual discussion of the contents of the March issue of the Review will be presented with that for the April issue in the June BULLETIN. The printing of March issue the 1919 index and reprints from the February issue has been. held up on account of paper shortage.

Entered as second-class matter March 1, 1920, at the Post Office at Easton, Pennsylvania, under the Act of August 24, 1912.




Vol. 1

Published Monthly by the American Meteorological Society
Publication office: 207 Church Street, Easton, Pa.

JUNE, 1920



No. 6

The Committee on Corporation Membership is actively at work carrying out its program looking to the increase in Corporation Membership in the Meteorological Society. It is found that there is a wide variety of manufacturers and commercial institutions which benefit directly or indirectly through the use of meteorological data, and through the results of meteorological research along special lines. Among others may be mentioned:

(1) Inland Navigation Companies, Contractors, and Mercantile establishments, which depend either on their own or on published flood predictions to save their property from flood damage.

(2) Irrigation Companies.

(3) Hydro-electric Power Companies. It is found that such Companies are interested in meteorological work not only because they depend on rainfall and stream flow to produce power, but because of the profound effect on power output which sometimes results from dark days, thunder storms, ice storms, or heavy snowfalls.

(4) Chambers of Commerce in localities largely dependent on water power or irrigation.

(5) Life insurance companies, sanitariums and medical specialists interested in the relation of climatology to health.

(6) Planters, Fruit Companies, Boards of Trade, and Produce Brokers, especially with reference to cotton, citrus fruits, and orchard products.

(7) Water Works Companies, especially those dependent on reservoir and gravity supplies.

(8) Ice Companies, using natural ice.

(9) Manufacturers of meteorological instruments and apparatus, manufacturers of aeroplanes and manufacturers of dirigible and other balloons.

The Committee on Corporation Membership desires to know at once the names of commercial organizations, companies and individuals, coming within any of the above described classes, who are located in each locality throughout the country. Members of the SOCIETY are earnestly requested to submit lists of names classified along the lines indicated to the Chairman of the Committee on Corporation Membership, Robert E. Horton, R. D. 1, Voorheesville, N. Y.

It is recognized that a considerable number of the employees of the Weather Bureau are members of the SOCIETY and that they engage in work directly beneficial to the business interests described in the foregoing paragraphs. Therefore, it should be understood that the Corporations Committee of the SOCIETY does not desire or expect any activity on the part of such members that will in

any way subject the Bureau to criticism or involve its representatives in embarrassing situations in their relations to the corporations that are entitled to receive at all times, free of cost, the full benefits of that Government service. There are many things in the promotion and advancement of the science of meteorology which, under the limitations of law and restricted appropriations, the Weather Bureau cannot do but which can be done by the American Meteorological Society. Many corporations are more or less vitally interested in the development of these problems and no doubt will be glad to foster them.


Committee: C. F. Marvin, Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C., Chairman. E. H. Bowie, S. P. Fergusson, H. H. Kimball, Alexander McAdie. CORRELATION OF SOLAR VARIABILITY AND TERRESTRIAL WEATHER. So much importance has been attached to this topic of late by meteorologists, astrophysicists, and others, that it has seemed advisable for the Weather Bureau to make it the subject of a special research.

This will be directed principally to a correlation of values of the so-called solar constant, as determined by the Astrophysical Observatory of the Smithsonian Institution, with meteorological elements in the United States. It will be subdivided into two major divisions, as follows: (1) The elimination as far as possible from the published solar constant values of the variations due to (a) instrumental errors or errors in reading the instruments, (b) errors due to inexact methods of computation, and (c) errors due to variable atmospheric conditions. This can probably best be accomplished by combining successive groups of computed values into means, or else by drawing a smooth curve through the plotted computed values.

(2) The correlation of these smoothed solar constant values with values of the meteorological elements. Probably the first element to be considered will be the temperature at inland stations, preferably on plateaus. The maximum for the day, the daily range, and the mean for the day will be examined in the order named. The degree of correlation found between the solar constant values and terrestrial temperatures will determine to what extent the correlation will be extended to other meteorological elements.

The investigation, which has been assigned to the Solar Radiation Investigations Section, will be conducted in accordance with approved statistical methods. In a letter to the Chairman, Prof. Alexander McAdie, of Blue Hill Observatory, gives the following account of the research activities of that Observatory: "The transmutation of energy, initially solar, in the lower strata may be molecular, or of a general character, as in the mass motion of air streams. "It seems to us that the most pressing problem is that of the change of state of water vapor. Even in measurement of the solar constant, we cannot get away from the importance of accurate determination of both the lower or ground values of humidity and the integrated humidity, this last by a ratio of intensities of certain absorption lines 0.5μ (more definite results perhaps, if the group 0.93 could be used.)

"Measurements of atmospheric transmissibility depend upon reliable determinations of the water vapor between the observer and the sun.

"Claims which have recently been made of the existence of a direct relation between short period variation in solar intensity and weather (temperature and precipitation) in given localities, are open to the criticism that it must first be shown beyond question that the variations as measured and reduced at the earth's surface represent true solar variations; and not values due to variables in the earth's atmosphere. This is the crux of the matter.

"The standard instrument used at astrophysical observatories is an Assmann aspiration psychrometer. It has seemed to us that this is not sufficient, improvement, as it is, on the usual form of sling psychrometer. Changes in cloudiness are sometimes quite rapid; and also changes in vapor distribution near the ground. It is advisable that a continuous record be obtained, and this should include not only the percentage of saturation or ratio of vapor pressure at dewpoint temperature to the pressure at the current temperature (Relative Humidity) but the vapor density also. For this purpose an instrument such as the hygrograph described in a separate paper, might be helpful.

"There has also been devised and used for over a year an instrument known as a cryoscope. By means of this and an improved form of nephoscope, close estimates of the height of the plane of condensation in the free air can be obtained; also data of air velocity and direction of flow at the level of the lower clouds. The combined instruments enable us to get some idea of the lapse rate and so to distinguish one type of structure from another. The heights of the levels of general cloudy condensation determined in this way have been checked by cloud measurements with pilot balloons, one theodolite method; or by two theodolites. They agree within 50 to 100 metres, showing that the method is serviceable.

"There has also been a re-examination of the cloud measurements made at this Observatory and extending over many years. This is still in progress.

"Some work has been done on uniformity of symbols. It is a lamentable fact that in the literature of dynamic meteorology, there are glaring instances of careless nomenclature and the wrong use of a symbol established and well recognized in other fields of research. Thus the Greek letter λ which astronomers hold sacred for longitude is used by some American aerologists following the lead of British writers, for latitude. Some symbols are worked to death and some writers use the same symbol with entirely different meaning within a few pages. Such confusion is needless. We have attempted to systematize units and symbols. And have drawn up a working scheme, copy of which will be forwarded soon.

"Dr. George Porter Paine, holding a Fellowship from the National Research Council, has carried on work, partly at Blue Hill Observatory and partly at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Jefferson Physical Laboratory of Harvard University, relative to a new psychrometric formula. Wind tunnel experiments show that the effect of ventilation is to set up variations in certain quantities in his formula, which, at present, appear consistently to obey a simple physical law."]


Committee: J. Warren Smith, Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C., Chairman. A. W. Douglas, E. S. Johnston, H. E. Horton, A. J. Connor, A. D. Hopkins, G. L. Peltier.

Suggested topics for discussion, in addition to those given in the BULLETIN for February, 1920.

By Dr. Geo. L. Peltier, Auburn, Ala.:

"Of course you know that I am interested in the relation of climate and environment to the growth of plants, and their relation to plant diseases. Lately I am obtaining numerous indications that environmental conditions influence to some extent the susceptibility or resistance of a plant to disease."

By Dr. A. D. Hopkins, Washington, D. C.:

"I am naturally interested in having the subject of crop phenology and the Bioclimatic law, as related to climate and agriculture, receive a due share of attention.

"As you know I have been giving special attention to these subjects for many years and am more than ever convinced that a basis for solving many of the problems, involving a consideration of periodical farm practice, geographical distribution of crops as affected by climate, weather, etc., is to be found in a proper interpretation and application of the principles involved." (See also pp. 65 and 66.)

Dr. Hopkins has explained the Bioclimatic law and its application very fully in the Monthly Weather Review Supplement No. 9, under the head, "Periodical Events and Natural Laws as Guides to Agricultural Research and Practice." The following are extracts from letters by members of this committee and others:

H. E. Horton, Chicago, Illinois. "The only suggestion I am competent to make is one along the lines of publicity. I would like to see the Society make it a point to cull from the literature everything bearing on the production of crops and give this material the widest kind of publicity. I would like to see a list made of all available illustrations on this subject.

"As you know, I am in the Publicity Department of a great Corporation and am in close touch with people in all sections of the country. People everywhere are looking for the right kind of information on every subject, and I know that they would welcome illustrated material on the subject of climate and crops. Furthermore, I know that everybody everywhere would welcome the proper presentation of the subject of the paths of cyclones and anti-cyclones. I want to help in every way I can."

Dr. A. D. Hopkins, Washington, D. C.—“Under the head of suggestions, my first thought is naturally with reference to the Bioclimatic Law with the development of which I have become identified. While this law has a broad application to the relations between life and climate and to general research and practice relating to agriculture, there are naturally many questions in climatology and meteorology which are fundamental as related to certain causes and effects and principles, a knowledge of which is essential to proper interpretation and application.

"In addition to the laws and principles relating to climate and weather which may be considered independently of their relations to life and thus belonging specifically to research in climatology, most of them are so intimately associated with life activities and geographic distribution as to require coöperative research by specialists in different branches of science. Some of those deserving special consideration by the Meteorologists and Biologists of this Society are: 1. The laws of temperature control as related to the periodical events in the seasonal activity of organisms.


Effective temperature as related to responses in species and varieties. The sum total of heat required for the development of a periodical phase or the complete seasonal history of an organism.


C. Variations and modifications of the effective influence of the thermal mean and the sum total of heat and cold with variations in geographical position.

d. Variations of temperature with variations in geographical positions and topography.

e. Gradients of temperature for degrees of latitude and equivalent units of altitude.

2. The quantity and quality of daylight in relation to the development of organisms.

3. Quantity and quality of solar heat and sunshine in relation to life activities.

4. Humidity as related to temperature, daylight, sunshine, etc., and their combined effective influence on organisms.

5. The complex of all elements and factors of climate and weather in relation to the seasonal activities of organisms as revealed and measured by the organism itself.

6. Explanation of the continental influences which cause an acceleration of ife activ ities westward and retardation eastward in the spring as related to parallels of latitude or, in other words, variations in such activities with longitude.

"There are many other problems to be considered independently and jointly by meteorologists and biologists, including methods of recording, classifying and compiling biological and meteorological data to meet the needs of the investigators, systematized series of experiments and observations at the various meteorological and agricultural stations with special reference to the needs of information

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