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on the influences of local conditions in causing variations from the normal or bioclimatic constant, etc."

Robert E. Horton, Voorheesville, N. Y.-"I wish to call attention to the following considerations, of interest mainly to engineers:

"Water losses through vegetation by interception and transpiration comprise the greater portion of the total losses of water from cropped areas during the summer season (probably at least two-thirds to three-fourths of the total). "In view of the great importance of phenological data, both with reference to agricultural meteorology and with reference to hydrology, is it not desirable that active efforts be made through the medium of the Meteorological Society to get a system of phenological observations started in this country? Might it not be possible to arrange to have uniform phenological records kept at all or most of the agricultural experiment stations in the United States? Before undertaking to carry out any such program, it would be desirable to formulate a schedule of the data to be recorded, which schedule should be made up, having in mind the utility of the data both in connection with agricultural and hydrologic or engineering investigations. I, of course, have in mind the annual phenological reports published by the Royal Meteorological Society. It seems to me, however, that such a report should be made out more specially with reference to crops, but also including typical natural vegetation, and including as the most prominent factors those which determine the length of the growing season, the period of foliation and the period of harvest, and also including data as to the average height of crops such as wheat, corn, oats and barley at specified dates, and wherever possible the average yields."

The Committee met on April 22, and discussed fully the needs for a wider knowledge of the study of the effect of weather and climate on crops and outlined plans for developing further interest through the membership of the SoCIETY. The Chairman submitted a statement of the history and development of Agricultural Meteorology and some of the plans for the future.

This statement defined agricultural meteorology in its broadest sense, as "Meteorology in its relation to Agriculture." The effect of weather upon crop growth was early recognized and as long ago as 1806, the Honorable Simon DeWitt, of Albany, New York, read a memoir on climate in its relation to agriculture, before the American Agricultural Society. The present Division of Agricultural Meteorology was established as a new Division of the Weather Bureau on February 23, 1916, and the work of the Bureau relating particularly to agriculture was placed under its supervision.

One of the most important needs for the future is the inauguration of systematic meteorology observations at the Agricultural Experiment Stations in different parts of the country, in connection with the detailed record of the development of the principal farm crops.

The following by Dr. A. D. Hopkins furnishes topics suitable not only for discussion at meetings of the SOCIETY, but for general discussion and study. Articles will be welcome on any of the topics, and the best possible use made of the papers.-J. Warren Smith, Chairman.

SUGGESTIONS FOR COMMITTEE ON AGRICULTURAL METEOROLOGY.

TOPICS FOR PAPERS AND DISCUSSION.

It seems that one of the functions of the committee is to consider and suggest topics for the program on subjects relating to the practical application of acquired information on climate, weather and kindred subjects to agriculture such as:

I. The practical value of meteorological records to the farmer on

1. Temperature, humidity, sunshine, light, etc.

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3. Forecasting the weather and frost.

4. Late and early killing frosts.

II. Climatic control of

I.

2.

3.

Variations in seed time and harvest with variations in geographical position.

Geographical distribution of species and varieties of cultivated plants and domestic animals.

Geographical distribution of types of farming.

4. Variation in the time to control farm pests.

III. The practical value to the farmer of research in

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3. Bioclimatology by Biologists in coöperation with Climatologists and Meteorologists.

4. Geoclimatology by Geographers and Biologists in coöperation with Climatologists.

IV. Coöperation.

I.

The importance of coöperation (a) between meteorologists and investigators in all other branches of science involving considerations of climate and weather, and (b) with agriculturists and leaders in other industries in the practical application of information of immediate interest to them.

I think that a list of these with additional topics that may be suggested by other members of the committee might be printed in the BULLETIN a few months in advance of a meeting of the SOCIETY to serve as suggestions of desirable topics from which to make selections.

EXPERIMENT STATION WORK.

In connection with the safest and best time to plant and when the harvest may be expected, periods of development of crops, etc., the State Experiment Stations could render a most valuable service to the farmers of the States they represent and to certain lines of research if they would organize and conduct a series of planting date experiments with the various standard farm and garden crops of the State.

Planting should be done at intervals of about six days from the very earliest to the very latest that planting of a given crop is ever done in the locality represented. Then phenological growth and yield records should be kept during the period of development from germination to ready to harvest together with coincident phenological records of events in common, native, and introduced plants.

COMMERCIAL METEOROLOGY.

Committee: H. J. Cox, Weather Bureau, Chicago Ill., Chairman.

H. C. Frankenfield, E. A. Beals, Wm. C. Devereaux, H. W. Richardson, J. A. Sutherland, A. W. Douglas.

The existing shortage or diminished output of certain commodities-coal, food, construction materials, etc., domestic and export demands, transportation conditions, the labor situation, and like problems, combine to emphasize, as never before, the necessity for production to the limit, and the wisest conservation in all directions.

It is no exaggeration to say that the work of the meteorologist has an intimate relation to such matters. While already large and highly valuable, the application of practical service-in view of the trend of events involving rapid economic changes and the consequent development of possibilities-is certainly far from

what it is bound to be, comparatively speaking. This allusion applies not alone to what the immediate future may require of the professional meteorologist, but to the recipient's use of weather information as well. The former perforce must intensively study business and transportation methods and needs in order to anticipate and meet varying conditions, while the latter should be skillful in utilizing advices. Also it is becoming more and more essential that the layman possess at least an elementary knowledge of meteorology, in order to coöperate 'better commercially.

Limited space precludes detailed discussion of the many phases of the subject at this time, but the following outline regarding some of the things the commercial meteorologist must do or that he ought to know concerning the handling and transportation of perishable food products will perhaps serve to illustrate the point:

He should have a fair comprehension of the effects of temperature, humidity, and ventilation, on all sorts of commodities, packed in many kinds of ways, and transported or stored under a wide range of conditions; the effectiveness of the various kinds of heaters (coal, kerosene, and charcoal) and results of gases given off by each; some knowledge of the different types of cars, round-housing, and icing methods and effects; protection afforded by dead air spaces, advantages and disadvantages and resistant or protective values of the different kinds of containers, methods of packing; the varying resistant or sensitive qualities of temperate, tropical or irrigated products as to extremes of heat or cold or dryness, or the moisture content of products; methods of salvage, recovery of frozen goods through thawing processes; something regarding refrigeration and storage, as well as storage in the cars; differences in effects of temperature upon food products in cars standing on track or in transit; protective measures as to products moving in wagons or open trucks-producer to warehouse and warehouse to depot, etc.; heavy and light schedule days and schedules in general, the handling of "pedler" cars (consignments from one or more firms using the same car to the same or several destinations) during severe weather; LCL shipments (less than carload lots), shipping methods and rules for handling all varieties of perishables; when or where to round-house, or to transfer goods from one type of car to another because of weather conditions, how cars of perishables are handled at transfer points; demurrage rules, damage claims, etc.

In general his work must be well organized to be effective-especially as to wide and quick distribution of warnings. It goes without saying that the commercial meteorologist must be many-sided, blessed with exceptional vision, competent and alert, and if he has ability to write for the press or to address public audiences the same will be found wonderfully helpful.-H. W. Richardson. DULUTH, MINN., June 10, 1920.

WINTER FORECASTS FOR THE NEW YORK CENTRAL LINES.

The May issue of the BULLETIN included notes on how seasonal sequences of temperature and rainfall are found and used in business enterprises (see pp. 46 and 49). Beginning in the fall of 1913, P. H. Dudley, Consulting Engineer, rails, tires and structural steel, New York Central Railroad, has issued charts of mild and cold winters and a statement as to the probable character of the coming winter. The 7th issue, dated October 15, 1919, addressed to chief engineers, maintenance of way engineers, superintendents of motive power and rolling stock, master car-builders and operating departments opens: "The present indications are that the winter of 1919-20 will be colder than the winter of 1918-19." The indications were right.

A general discussion of the effect of severe winters on rails, etc., follows. Then there are two pages of departures of monthly mean temperatures from the normal from January, 1911, to September, 1919, at 13 Weather Bureau stations on the New York Central Lines. On the last page is a tabular comparison of the ac

cumulated excess or deficiency temperatures for ten months of the years 1912, 1917, 1918 and nine months of 1919, also the excess or deficiency precipitation for the same period at the 13 stations.

BUSINESS METEOROLOGY.

Committee: A. W. Douglas, Simmons Hardware Co., St. Louis, Mo., Chairman. H. E. Williams, J. C. Alter, H. B. Newhall, F. A. Carpenter, Walter Woods, J. P. Finley.

Matters relating to the work of this committee are discussed on pages 45-47 and 49 of the May BULLETIN.

MARINE METEOROLOGY.

Committee: J. H. Scarr, Weather Bureau, New York City, Chairman.

F. G. Tingley, Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C., Vice-Chairman.
E. A. Beals, E. Lester Jones, J. H. Kimball, G. W. Littlehales, F. A.
Young.

Messrs.

A meeting of the Committee was held on April 22 from 2 to 3.30 P. M. Tingley, Littlehales, Young, T. A. Blair (by invitation), and C. F. Brooks were present. The Chairman, Mr. J. H. Scarr, sent his regrets at being unable to attend and in his letter outlined points which formed the basis of the afternoon's discussion. His proffered resignation as chairman of the committee was refused, and to relieve him of active duties for the present, Mr. F. G. Tingley was appointed vice-chairman of the Committee. The Committee put itself on record as favoring uniformity in the use of a scale of wind force, and expressed its general willingness to adopt the current British Beaufort scale. The chairman of the Committee was asked to write to the Hydrographic Office stating the decision of the Committee, and asking the Hydrographic Office to look into the practicability of making such a change. The Committee favored international standardization of all forms for meteorological reports, and wished to ask the Weather Bureau to correspond with the British Meteorological Office about a possible compromise. In discussing international standardization of meteorological units and times of observation, the Committee decided that it was best to take the data in the units most easily suited to the observers and to discourage any reduction of the data on the part of the observer, especially as regards barometer observations. As this is the current practice no change was thought advisable at present. The Committee was strongly in favor of extending radiographic reports for charting meteorological data daily; and looked to the agencies at present constituted to bring this about. The publication of a monthly bulletin for the North Atlantic was discussed and it was decided that the most practicable form for such a publication at present was to publish notes, 'maps, discussion, and other matter on the back of the Pilot Chart. The Weather Bureau was to be encouraged to submit copy for a sample, to the Hydrographic Office. A new "Marine Manual" consisting of the present (revised) instructions for observers and some information on general meteorology plus some special discussions to be added from time to time was favored as a Weather Bureau publication. A proposition to send Coast Guard and Navy vessels into the hurricane region for patrol work was discussed and referred to the Weather Bureau forecasters. The Council accepted the report and passed three motions:

(1) That the chairman of the Committee on Marine Meteorology be directed to write to the Hydrographic Office expressing the SOCIETY's desire to have international uniformity in the use of the Beaufort scale and requesting the Hydro

graphic Office to look into current usage in other countries and to report on the practicability of the United States making such a change as would bring us into conformity with the most widespread usage.

(2) That the Weather Bureau be encouraged to submit sample copy of material appropriate for publication on the back of the Pilot Chart.

(3) That the Weather Brueau be encouraged to publish a "Marine Manual" embodying instructions for observers, text in general meteorology, and special discussions to be added to new editions.

The Council also directed the Committee to follow closely the reports of the marine commission of the International Meteorological Committee.

THE PAN-PACIFIC SCIENTIFIC CONGRESS.

Honolulu, August 2 to 20, 1920.

(Reprinted from Science, April 30, 1920, p. 431.)

The purpose of the congress is to outline scientific problems of the Pacific Ocean region and to suggest methods for their solution; to make a critical inventory of existing knowledge, and to devise plans for future studies. It is anticipated that this congress will formulate for publication a program of research which will serve as a guide for coöperative work for individuals, institutions and governmental agencies.

Representative scientists from the countries whose interests in whole or in part center in the Pacific will be present, and a number of men whose researches demand a knowledge of the natural history of the Pacific islands and shore lands have expressed their intention to attend.

The program of the conference is in the hands of the Committee on Pacific Exploration of the National Research Council, which consists of the following members:

John C. Merriam, University of California, chairman; Wm. Bowie, U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey; R. A. Daly, Harvard University; William M. Davis, Harvard University; Barton W. Evermann, California Academy of Science; Herbert E. Gregory, Yale University; E. B. Mathews, National Research Council; George F. McEwen, Scripps Institute; Alfred G. Mayor, Carnegie Institution; William E. Ritter, Scripps Institute.

The meetings will be arranged to place emphasis on the following topics:

I. Research desirable to inaugurate projects described in considerable detail with reference to their significance, and their bearing on other fields of study. Investigations designed to lay the foundation for a higher utilization of the economic resources of the Pacific may be included.

3. Methods of coöperation with a view to eliminating unnecessary duplication of money and energy.

4.

ments.

The best use of the funds now available and the source of further endow

Chairman, Pan-Pacific Scientific Congress

BERNICE PAUAHI BISHOP MUSEUM,

HONOLULU, HAWAII.

HYDROLOGICAL METEOROLOGY.

Herbert E. Gregory,

Committee: Robert E. Horton, R. D. No. 1, Voorheesville, N. Y., Chairman. X. H. Goodnough, H. R. Leach, J. T. Whistler, A. J. Henry, W. F. V. Atkinson, C. H. Lee, J. Warren Smith.

The Committee on Hydrological Meteorology is at work on a program to determine the locations throughout the United States where additional rain gages and temperature records may be desirable. It is requested that members of the SOCIETY submit to the Chairman of the Committee on Hydrological Meteorology any suggestions they may desire to make as to locations where additional rain gages appear desirable. Such suggestions should, if possible, be accompanied by a brief statement of reasons why additional rain gages are needed, specifying

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