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with the teacher; for most primary and secondary teachers are recruited from normal schools and colleges which, with few notable exceptions, offer no special instruction in the subject.

No information is at hand as to the normal schools offering instruction in meteorology, but from the replies to a questionnaire sent out in 1917 by the U. S. Commissioner of Education, Dr. Brooks estimates that fully 90 per cent. of the colleges and universities of the country offer no meteorological instruction whatever.

Out of 363 institutions, reporting that no separate courses in meteorology and climatology were offered, some 15 indicated the desirability of such courses. Prof. H. E. Simpson, of the University of North Dakota, after analyzing the replies of these institutions, submits the following report and recommendations. "First. There appears to be a fairly evident desire on the part of a number of institutions of higher rank to offer more definite courses in meteorology and climatology.

"There is apparently an opportunity for the Society to encourage and assist in the development of such courses in several of the higher institutions and perhaps in normal and secondary schools as well. Experience both in college and university leads me to the belief that where once started, courses in elementary meteorology develop interest rapidly and soon become important elective subjects in science in both the college of Liberal Arts and the college of Education. Such courses may well be required in agricultural colleges and in some departments of colleges of engineering.

"Second.-The Society could undoubtedly be of assistance to some of the colleges already reported, by attempting to supply their needs through direct communication and coöperation by the committee.

"Third. In case Ward's Practical Exercises in Elementary Meteorology is actually out of print as reported, and it is now over twenty years old, the Society might well encourage Professor Ward to revise and reprint this book. In case Professor Ward cannot do this, it might be well to interest some other teacher or group of teachers in the preparation of a new laboratory manual provided a suitable publisher could be found.

"Fourth.-Much could be done to improve laboratory work by the preparation and publication of approved laboratory exercises in the Monthly Weather Review, the BULLETIN OF THE AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY, and in the Journal of Geography, and by the use of reprints from the same.

"Fifth. The publication of a list of text-books and reference works suitable for elementary courses could also be made in these publications.

"Sixth.-Lists of apparatus with approximate cost and the names and addresses of manufacturing companies could be issued in the same way.'

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The suggestions and recommendations contained in the report of Prof. Simpson are approved by your committee and are submitted to the Society for consideration.

It is also recommended that the U. S. Commissioner of Education be requested to send out a questionnaire to normal schools, similar to that sent to colleges and universities in 1917 with a view to ascertaining the status of meteorological instruction in such schools.

Prof. Simpson has offered to analyze for the committee the replies received from such questionnaire.

In connection with the needs of the Weather Bureau for trained meteorologists, and also the need of adequately trained teachers of meteorology in normal schools and institutions of higher rank, the question has been raised as to the desirability of the Society becoming actively interested in the establishment of instruction in advanced meteorology in one or more institutions of learning. It has been

suggested that the Society might well seek the endowment of a chair for this purpose.

This suggestion, having only recently come to the attention of your committee, has not yet received the consideration that would warrant a recommendation, and is therefore passed for the consideration of the Society.—Wilford M. Wilson, Chairman.

Report of Committee on Public Information.

Both the Society and the Weather Bureau are frequently asked to furnish a list of the principal works on meteorology. A somewhat comprehensive list of this character, compiled by the chairman, has passed through three editions, but the latest edition is now considerably behind the times and it is uncertain how soon a new one will be issued by the Weather Bureau. Accordingly, a brief, up-to-date list will be published in a subsequent number of the BULLETIN. The work of the committee, up to the present time, has consisted chiefly of the contribution, by the chairman, of occasional brief notes on the progress of meteorology to some of the more popular scientific journals. The chairman has written a popular book on the atmosphere which is to be published within the next few months by the P. F. Collier & Son Company, New York.-C. F. Talman, Chair


Report of Committee on Physiological Meteorology.

During the year 1920 the Physiological Committee as a whole has not been able to have a meeting. The Chairman, however, corresponded with the members and had personal conferences with a number of them.

The chief work of the Committee was the laying out of a plan for a volume which will sum up the present situation of the whole subject of the relation of meteorology to physiology. Dr. Redway has agreed to take editorial charge of the work, and others have expressed their willingness to assist. Some preliminary chapters have been written by Dr. Redway and plans are on foot for an active campaign to secure coöperation from a considerable number of authorities. It is hoped that the year 1921 may see considerable progress in assembling the data for this work. The object of the book is to present in compact form (1) A precise statement of what has actually been demonstrated in respect to the relation of each meteorological element to as many physiological conditions as possible.

(2) To point out with absolute impartiality the places where there is difference of opinion and the reasons for each of the important hypotheses advanced in explanation of any particular set of conditions.

(3) To point out the chief gaps in our knowledge and thus make the book serve as a guide to investigators.

(4) To stimulate interest in physiological meteorology by setting forth in clear relief the great importance of the subject, the imperfection of our knowledge, and some of the best methods by which more may be learned.—Ellsworth Huntington, Chairman.

Report of the Committee on Agricultural Meteorology.

The committee was organized in January, 1920, with seven members.

A meeting was held on April 22 when the need for a wider knowledge of the


effect of weather and climate on crops was discussed and plans outlined for developing increased interest in these subjects, through the membership of the Society.

Papers were read by different members of the committee at the meeting of the Society in Washington on April 22, 1920.

Suggestions for the development of agricultural meteorology by different members of the committee and others have been published in the BULLETIN. The suggestions outlined by Dr. Hopkins in Number 6 are particularly helpful. The following papers by members of the committee have been published in the Monthly Weather Review:

April, 1920, p. 214: Modifying Factors in Effective Temperatures. A. D. Hopkins. P. 215: Climatic Conditions in a Greenhouse as Measured by Plant Growth. E. S. Johnston.

May, 1920, p. 281: Agricultural Meteorology. Definition, historical, and the future, with bibliography. J. Warren Smith.

June, 1920, p. 311. Relation between Annual Precipitation and the Number of Head of Stock-Grazed per Square Mile. J. Warren Smith.

August, 1920, p. 452: Lightning Injury in a Potato Field. E. S. Johnston. Supplement No. 16, 1920. Predicting Minimum Temperatures from Hygrometric Data. J. Warren Smith.

A text-book on Agricultural Meteorology by J. Warren Smith was published in December, 1920, by The Macmillan Company.

Work in hand: The committee has in hand the preparation of a simple form that may be used to record phenological data by any one interested in periodical events and weather effects. It is recognized that systematic records should be kept of the effects of weather on the date of the blossoming of fruits and the beginning of farm operations; the development and yield of different crops; and the spread of insects and plant diseases.

The weather is the controlling factor and it is by keeping comparable records at a large number of places and for a considerable period of time that the relations may be fully established.-J. Warren Smith, Chairman.

Report of Committee on Marine Meteorology.

The Committee on Marine Meteorology held but one meeting during the year, that of April 22, a report of which appeared in the BULLETIN for June. Among the several matters engaging the attention of the Committee at that meeting it is possible at this time to report progress affecting only one.

The Committee expressed itself as in favor of a monthly bulletin of the North Atlantic Ocean and decided that the most practicable form for such a publication to take was to publish notes, maps, discussions and other matter on the back of the Pilot Charts. However it was later found impracticable to put such a plan into operation until the force of the Marine Division could be augmented, and an alternative plan was adopted. This consists in having reprints made of the matter appearing in the Monthly Weather Review relating to the weather of the oceans, the North Pacific as well as the North Atlantic Ocean receiving special attention, together with other material likely to be of interest in marine circles. This publication began with the July number of the Review.

Necessarily there is some delay in the issuing of such a publication, but present conditions render this unavoidable.

The Weather Bureau has thus been able to carry out, if in a somewhat modi

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fied form, one of the projects indorsed by the Committee.-J. H. Scarr, by F. G. Tingley, Vice-Chairman.

Report of Committee on Aeronautical Meteorology.

While the work of the Committee on Aeronautical Meteorology has been limited during 1920, the prospects for work during the new year are especially bright. The principal feature of the work for 1921 is the model airway which has just been organized by the Air Service. This route, which lies between Dayton and Washington, with Langley Field, Va., and Mitchel Field, N. Y., as additional eastern termini, will afford the opportunity to experiment with and try all manner of suggestions and plans as to the proper conduct of an airway. This is particularly important from the standpoint of aeronautical meteorology, for there will be radio communication between all of the points along the route, and the planes will be equipped with radio direction-finding apparatus. This equipment will enable meteorological data to be transmitted instantly from one point to another and be available at all times on bulletin boards at the flying fields. The results of this intensive application of all kinds of aids to aerial navigation should be of considerable value, not only to other agencies which will be organizing similar routes on a commercial basis, but will be extremely important from the meteorological standpoint in showing just what information is of greatest value and how it can be furnished in the most satisfactory manner.

The American Meteorological Society, through this Committee, can serve a very valuable purpose in disseminating information gleaned from such sources as that mentioned above, among those who, within the next few years, will be most active in the development of commercial aviation. Such a course will serve the purpose of pointing out clearly the important part that meteorology will have to play in their enterprise, and also the manner in which that part will be played the kind of meteorological information, the way it will be collected, the manner in which it will be applied, and the ultimate value that will accrue from its use. With these facts clearly put to manufacturers of aircraft, to promoters of aerial routes, and to chambers of commerce and others particularly interested in the commercial aspects of aviation, there should be no reason why, when the industry has had time to establish itself, meteorology will not have won its rightful place in the scheme of aerial transport.-Charles T. Menoher, by C. C. Culver, Vice-Chairman.

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Report of the Committee on Business Meteorology.

The story of Business Meteorology during 1920 is largely that of growing interest in the subject of weather as applied to business. As the Chairman of the Committee on Business Meteorology, I have been in receipt of a number of letters from business concerns throughout the country asking what can be done to formulate some fairly definite theory of weather forecasting, which will apply to business in general, as regards the effect of weather on business, or else inquiries as to whether there was some method of forecasting the weather which they could utilize and apply themselves to their own particular business. It is rather difficult to explain to the average business man, no matter how intelligent he may be, that weather forecasting may be well described in the definition of self decapitation in the words of Koko in "The Mikado,” as being “a delicate and difficult, not to say dangerous, operation."


A business man has first to be made to realize that weather forecasting is yet in its infancy and is surrounded by perplexities and difficulties in the way of forecasting what the weather will be, and that this is particularly true of long distance forecasting, which is practically what most commercial businesses desire.

Of course in the matter of shipment of stock and of perishable products and of fruits and vegetables, short distance forecasts are most valuable and are constantly being made with great accuracy and benefit for the shippers and producers by the Weather Bureau, which seems very thoroughly to cover this phase of the situation. But ordinarily commercial business wants to know some months ahead what the weather will be so that they may order their buying and selling of seasonable goods accordingly.

Even with a method which the Committee on Statistics of the Chamber of Commerce of the United States has endeavored to work out in relation to longdistance forecasting, it is found that it is almost impossible for the average business man to figure out from the reports of the Committee on Statistics just how he shall carry out the method and make his own forecast. And for the simple reason that it needs long and careful study on his part of weather records in the past and keeping up charts to date of precipitation and temperature to enable him to make his own forecasts, and especially as applied to his own business. In other words, any business concern wishing to make a definite application of the method spoken of must necessarily have it done by someone who has made a study of the weather and also evolved a complete system of weather charts of both past and present records.

The last 12 months have been rather fruitful in bringing to light. various methods of long-distance forecasting, differing much from each other in the fundamental principles. Some of them are simply citing of old straw ideas threshed over again and the bringing forth of old theories which have been discredited by long experience. Some of them are the result of serious thought,

of study and analysis, of weather records.

It may be said in general that there seems to be at least a beginning of intelligent desire on the part of the business world to utilize long distance forecasts a long time ahead and to formulate methods to produce these desired results.A. W. Douglas, Chairman.

Amendment to By-Laws. In accordance with the action of the Council, the Secretary then proposed that the By-Laws be so amended as to provide minimum annual dues of $2; dues of contributing members $10; and for corporations and other organizations not less than $20. In the discussion it was pointed out, that subscriptions to the BULLETIN should not be less than the annual dues, that the Society would lose many members, that such an important action should not be taken by the few who happened to be able to come to the annual meeting, that we should not advance dues at the end of only one year, and, finally, that the Society still has a number of friends who would gladly be willing to pay more than the minimum dues required, rather than see its membership, and therefore its effectiveness, curtailed by a rise in dues in this early stage of its career. was generally agreed that the qustion of increasing the dues should be brought up again at the April meeting if the returns during the first three months of this year did not prove encouraging. The meeting voted in favor of placing the minimum dues for corporations at $20, but rejected the other portion of the amendment.


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