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this unusual season of drought the old saying, "all signs fail in a dry time" holds good.-G. H. Burnham.

MISCELLANEOUS NOTES.

[Submitted by A. H. Palmer.]

The diminished visibility attending fog was the indirect cause of two marine disasters on the Pacific Coast within a few days of each other during August, 1921. On August 6 the steamer "Alaska," bound from Seattle to San Francisco, ran ashore on Blunt's Reef during a dense fog. A total of 49 lives were lost, and the ship was a total loss. On August 10 the Pacific Mail liner "San Jose," enroute from the Panama Canal northward, ran ashore on San Roque Island, off Lower California, during a dense fog. Tugs summoned by wireless from San Diego were unable to pull the vessel into deep water. Though no lives were lost, the ship, valued at more than $1,000,000, was a total loss. Most of the cargo was salvaged,

The highest temperature recorded during the past summer at Greenland Ranch, in Death Valley, California, was 123°, which occurred on July 1 and 8. The temperature rose to 100° or higher on 22 days during June, on 31 days during July, and on 30 days during August.

Because of the frequency with which fires have started on automobile trucks carrying gasoline, a California oil company assigned one of its experts to investigate the problem with a view of discovering their origin. The investigator found that they were due to small electrical discharges. Because of their rubber tires, the trucks were found to be insulated from the ground. Small charges of electricity developed as a result of static electricity or through friction, and a tiny spark across a gap was sufficient to ignite the highly inflammable gasoline. As a remedy the investigator recommended that each truck carry a chain drag for the purpose of serving as a conductor with the ground. The suggestion was adopted, and fewer mysterious fires have since occurred. Hereafter, when you see an automobile truck dragging a small iron chain under it you will understand that this does not necessarily indicate carelessness on the part of the chauffeur, as the chain may be serving a useful purpose.

Dr. STEPHEN S. VISHER, who received the Bishop Museum Fellowship from Yale University, is in Honolulu for the purpose of making a study of the influence of climate upon the people of the Pacific, with special emphasis upon the influence of cyclonic storms.

Miss ANNE LOUISE BECK, who held the American-Scandinavian Fellowship in Meteorology last year has returned from Bergen Museum, Norway, and now holds a teaching fellowship in astronomy in the University of California, Berkeley, California.

Diameter growth in Box Elder and Blue Spruce.-By the use of the dendrograph, invented by MacDougal, C. F. Korstian, of Ogden, Utah, and MacDougal have found some interesting facts about diameter growth of trees (Botanical Gazette June, 1921, vol. 71, pp. 454-461, 3 figs, bibliog.).

In experimenting with the Acer Negundo it was learned that its growth begins about the 19th of May and that it is proportional to the range of temperature, i. e., the greater the variation between night temperature and day temperature, the greater the diameter increase. With Picea Parryana no direct correlation could be found between the growth and the current temperature. The growth lagged behind the temperature changes. Cambial activity is dependent upon the temperature; while soil temperature and insolation are influential factors. During the non-growth period nothing was observed but alternate shrinkage and expansion due to changes in moisture and temperature.-R. F. E.

COMMENT ON REVIEW OF REDWAY'S HANDBOOK

OF METEOROLOGY.

Dr. Brooks kindly furnished me with a copy of the criticism of my book. [July-August BULLETIN, pp. 99-100.]

I cannot take violent issue with his opinion concerning the diagram on p. 25. It shows roughly the northern limit of food production. This should have been noted in the text. I am inclined to think that a better drawing should be made, but the diagram as it is fully illustrates the point. I do not see how a better illustration of the wind belts, as far as the fundamental movements are concerned, could be presented than the one, p. 49. This has been a standard diagram in probably fourscore texts and treatises in the last hundred years. So far as the descriptive text in the first three lines, p. 50, is concerned: The Trade Winds have had a southwesterly1 direction on the northern front of the belt et seq. ever since I studied good old Warren's Physical Geography, in the '60's-and I have failed to discover a change since Iceland was annexed to Germany. The illustration, p. 150, was drawn by a member of the Weather Bureau from a storm map which I selected with his approval. Here in Mount Vernon winter storms are occasionally followed by 36-48 hours of cloudiness. The diagram, p. 155, is the official storm card taken from the Coast Pilot charts of which it has been a feature for nearly half a century. I should not care to change it. Credit is due to Col. John P. Finley for the diagram, p. 161: I have used it in my publications for 40 years without knowing the author, although he gave it to me. The legends pp. 78 and 94 are practically the same as in the legends furnished by the Weather Bureau-except for the "curro"-cumulus.

One most atrocious blunder Dr. Brooks does not mention. On p. 130 I have made Dr. Humphreys responsible for the statement: "While the earth is receiving a lessened amount of heat it is radiating thirty times as much." What Dr. Humphreys says (p. 580, Physics of the Air) is:-"the shell of volcanic dust, the particles all being the size given, is some thirty-fold more effective in shutting solar radiation out than it is in keeping terrestrial radiation in.” I have an indistinct recollection of copying his text as it reads and, in a moment of intellectual vacuity, changing it in the proof; anyway, no one but myself is responsible for the blunder.

Since the publication of the book I have received some most helpful and useful suggestions from Dr. Brooks which are in the interest of clearness. They will appear in a following edition.-J. W. Redway.

NOMINATIONS REQUESTED.

Article VII of the Constitution provides that

"At least eight weeks before the annual meeting the secretary shall send to each fellow and member of the Society a request for nominations, specifying the offices which are to be filled."

This note constitutes the request required. The offices to be filled are: President, Vice-President, Secretary, and Treasurer. There should be nominations for five councilors. Nominations should be sent to the Secretary, Clark University, Worcester, Mass. The Annual Meeting will be held at Toronto, on Thursday, December 29, 1921.

The present officers and councilors are as follows: President: Professor Robert DeC. Ward, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. (Not eligible for reëlection for 1922.)

Vice-President: Dr, W. J. Humphreys, Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C. Secretary: Dr. Charles F. Brooks, Clark University, Worcester, Mass. Treasurer: Mr. Robert E. Horton, Consulting Hydraulic Engineer, Voorheesville, N. Y.

It is unfortunate that "southwestly" is used at times for motions toward the southwest, although, when applied to wind meteorologists always understand southwesterly" to mean from a direction between SSW. and WSW. On page 52 Mr. Redway uses "Westerly" for winds from the west, which is inconsistent with his "southwesterly" for winds toward the southwest.-C. F. B.

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Councilors: Dr. J. de Sampaio Ferraz, Directoria de Meteorologia, Rio

de Janeiro, Brazil.

Prof. Alexander McAdie, Harvard University, Blue Hill Observatory,
Readville, Mass.

Prof. W. I. Milham, Williams College, Williamstown, Mass.

Major W. R. Blair, Meteorological Serv., Sig. Corps, Washington,
D. C.

Mr. E. H. Bowie, Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C..
Prof. H. J. Cox, Weather Bureau, Chicago, Ill.

Mr. A. W. Douglas, Simmons Hardware Co., St. Louis, Mo.

Dr. Ellsworth Huntington, Yale University, New Haven, Conn.
Prof. C. F. Marvin, Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C.
Major General C. T. Menoher, Camp Dix, N. J.

Sr. Jose C. Millás, Meteorological Service, Habana, Cuba.
Prof. J. Warren Smith, Weather Bureau, Washington D. C.
Sir Frederick Stupart, Meteorological Office, Toronto, Ont.
Prof. C. Fitzhugh Talman, Weather Bureau, Washington, D.C.
Prof. Wilford M. Wilson, Cornell Univ. and U. S. Weather Bureau,
Ithaca, N. Y.

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Application pending for transfer of entry as second-class matter to the Post Office, Worcester, Massachusetts.

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AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY

Published Monthly by the American Meteorological Society
Publication Office: 66 High Street, Worcester, Mass.

Address all Communications to "Secretary, Am. Met'l Soc., Clark University,
Worcester, Mass."

Vol. 2

OCTOBER-NOVEMBER, 1921

Nos. 10 and 11

PLANS FOR THE TORONTO MEETING

Nearly a year ago Sir Frederick Stupart, Director of the Dominion Meteorological Service, extended the following cordial invitation to the American Meteorological Society:

"I understand that the American Meteorological Society is to meet in Toronto during Christmas week, 1921. In behalf of the Meteorological Service, I would assure you that it will give myself and my chief assistants pleasure to do what we can to make the visit pleasant for those members who attend and the Meteorological Office will be open for inspection, and so far as possible for the use of the visiting members."

The Royal Canadian Institute also extended to the Society "a very hearty invitation to visit Toronto next December."

The general plan for the Toronto meeting, which is the 6th one of the Society, is as follows:

Wednesday, Dec. 28:

Morning session for presentation of various papers, especially on agricultural meteorology and climatology. Afternoon session for a symposium on, "Improvements in synoptic weather charts, especially on the reduction of atmospheric pressure observations.'

Thursday, Dec. 29: Morning session for the annual meeting, followed by the address of the President, Professor R. DeC. Ward, on, "Tendencies and progress in climatology during the past decade.' Afternoon session for presentation of miscellaneous papers.

Should the number of papers to be presented demand it, there will be another session on the afternoon of Tuesday, Dec. 27. There will be a meteorological luncheon Dec. 28. The detailed program will be published in the December Bulletin. Fellows and members of the Society are invited to attend and to present papers and take part in the discussions. Titles and abstracts should be sent to the Secretary at

once.

THE HOT SUMMER OF 1921 IN THE EASTERN UNITED STATES

1921 will long be noted for its very hot summer. We do not know how much of the world was unusually hot in that season, but we have reports of periods of extraordinary heat in western and central Europe, and many of us experienced the long series of unusually hot days in eastern North America. Professor A. J. Henry has discussed in the

Here I shall

July, 1921, Monthly Weather Review the general meteorological situation accompanying our many months of unusual warmth. give some details of the summer in Washington, D. C.

There were 32 days on which the maximum reached 90° or higher, and 34 on which the mean daily temperature was 80° or more. On every day from June 21-29, inclusive, the temperature rose to 90 or above. Then there was a three-day respite with maxima of 86, 82 and 88, followed by 6 more hot days broken in the middle by one with 83° as the highest. Until the 25th of July the temperature rose to 80 or above every day, but did not reach 90. Then there were 7 consecutive hot days. August was relatively cool, with but 2 hot days till the 30th when a series of 6 with maxima 91 or higher began. From June 16 to August 14-a period of 60 days—the minimum never went below 60. A very unusual feature of the summer is the fact that September was the second warmest month, as the following table shows:

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September's mean temperature, 74.4, practically equals the normal of August, 74.5. The rainfall for the four months was not only short by 4.19 inches, but was poorly distributed.

The accumulated excess of temperature from January 1, 1921, to the end of September was 1033°F. This record, however, pales into insignificance when we learn that for the same period Chicago had an excess of 1964° and for the 12 months ending Sept. 30, 1921, the great total of 2361°-a daily average of 6.5°. If we include September, 1920, we get 13 consecutive months with an accumulation of 2500°, or a daily average of 6.3°. You could scarcely blame Chicagoans for thinking their climate is changing. These amounts are decidedly in excess of anything recorded in Table III of Cox and Armington's book, “The Weather and Climate of Chicago," page 16. The extraordinary warm period lasted through October, and ended abruptly in the northeastern quarter of the United States on November 1. At Philadelphia, for example, the excess in temperature since the first of the year till early in November amounted to 1217 degrees, surpassing by more than 200 degrees the previous high mark for the same period. March, with an excess of 386 degrees, leads the months.-Herbert Lyman.

COMMITTEE ON AGRICULTURAL METEOROLOGY

To the Members of the Committee on

Agricultural Meteorology, A. M. S.

The committee on Corporation Membership at a meeting held March 28, 1921, decided to ask the various committees to solicit business organizations interested in these particular subjects to contribute funds for the activities of the Society, thus becoming corporate members.

Mr. Wm. G. Reed, 121 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, was appointed a member of our committee and asked to serve as the vice-chairman to take care of this drive for the committee on Agricultural Meteorology.

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