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Weather Review subscriptions for contributing and sustaining members $60, and miscellaneous expenses about $60. The $20 balance is faced with a liability of $60 more for Monthly Weather Review subscriptions, and $85 and $95 for the February and March BULLETINS, respectively. At the rate dues have been coming in, the further receipts should be enough to cover these bills when rendered.

It is obvious that the continued publication of the BULLETIN will be largely dependent on the staying qualities and generosity of the 500 who have not yet paid dues for 1921. The Society will get more for the money if dues are paid now rather than after it has been to the trouble and expense of sending an individual bill. Unless there is enough money on hand by the middle of April to carry the BULLETIN through the year on a 16-page basis, a vote will be taken at the Washington meeting on April 20 on raising the dues to $2 a year. What is the answer? Say it with checks and money orders!

The Address of the Treasurer, Mr. Robert E. Horton, is R. D. No. 1, Voorheesville, N. Y.

NOTICE.

The January and February BULLETINS were sent only, to those members in full standing 1921, to those who in 1920 paid more than $1 dues, and to all fellows of the Society. The March BULLETIN goes to all fellows and members. The April and subsequent BULLETINS will be sent only to those in full standing, i. e., those who have paid their dues for 1921.

WASHINGTON MEETING APRIL 20-21, 1921.

On account of a change in the program of the American section of the International Geophysical Union, the date of the meeting of the American Meteorological Society has been changed from the 18th to the evening of the 20th and the morning of the 21st. The evening session will open at 8.10 P.M. and the morning session at 9.30 A.M. Both will be held at the U. S. Weather Bureau, 24th and M Sts., Washington, D. C., unless the attendance is too large for the limited space in the Bureau. Those planning to come to the meeting will confer a favor by notifying the Secretary (address, Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C.). The program will be published in the April issue of the BULLETIN, which will probably be in the mails by the 10th.

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Entered as second-class matter March 1, 1920, at the Post Office at Easton, Pennsylvania, under the Act of August 24, 1912.

BULLETIN

OF THE

AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY

Published Monthly by the American Meteorological Society
Publication office: 207 Church Street, Easton, Pa.

Vol. 2

APRIL, 1921

PROGRAM OF THE APRIL MEETING.

No. 4

The fifth meeting of the American Meteorological Society will be held at the Weather Bureau, 24th and M Sts., N. W., Washington, D. C., on Wednesday and Thursday, April 20 and 21, 1921. Should later indications of probable attendance show that the accommodations at the Weather Bureau would be inadequate, those who have indicated their intention of being present will be notified. Others may inquire by telephone of the Weather Bureau, "West1640."

Preceding the meeting of the Society there will be the annual meeting of Section (c) Meteorology of the American Geophysical Union, on Tuesday, April 19. This is to be held in the Lecture Room of the Carnegie Institution, 16th and P Sts., N. W., Washington, D. C. The Executive Committee announces that the meeting will be open to fellows and members of the American Meteorological Society. The program is as follows:

2.00 p.m., Tuesday, April 19.—Reports and Discussions.

Relation between solar activity and its various aspects and the phenomena of terrestrial weather. C. G. Abbot and C. F. Marvin. (10 minutes each.) World weather maps, or maps of the Northern Hemisphere. E. H. Bowie. (10 min.)

Aerological observations for the World, or the Northern Hemisphere. W. R. Gregg (by invitation) and W. R. Blair (with reference to military application. 10 minutes each.

Strengthening university education in meteorology. R. DeC. Ward and C. F. Marvin. 5 minutes each.

World digest of meteorology. W. J. Humphreys. 5 min.

General adoption of the centesimal system of angular measurements with application to anemometers and nephoscopes. Alexander McAdie. 15 min. At the close of this program the business of the Section will be transacted.

The program of the American Meteorological Society sessions is as follows: 8.10-10.30 p.m., Wednesday, April 20.

Bioclimatic zones determined by meteorological data. A. D. Hopkins. 20

min.

The freezing of peach buds. E. S. Johnston. 10 min.

The critical period of wheat at College Park, Md. W. J. Sando. 10 min. Meteorological and other periodicities. C. F. Marvin.

20 min.

Progress in making upper-air pressure maps. C. L. Meisinger. 5 min.

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The free balloon and its use in meteorological research. C. L. Meisinger. 20 min.

The influence of mountains on meteorological phenomena. S. P. Fergusson. 20 min.

Equipment for attaining the greatest possible heights by means of kites. S. P. Fergusson. 15 min.

A short business meeting will close the session.

9.30-11.50 a.m., Thursday, April 21.

An improved recording rain and snow gauge. S. P. Fergusson. 5 min.

A new correction-scale for mercurial barometers. S. P. Fergusson. 10 min. Meteorological Service in Greece. John Paraskevopoulos.

Andean or Brown Mountain lights. Herbert Lyman. 5 min.

The brightness of the sky. H. H. Kimball. 10 min.

10 min.

Comparison of diurnal variations of wind velocity at Key West and Sand Key, Florida. Joseph Leshan. 10 min.

The level of constant density. W. J. Humphreys. 5 min.

Constants and coefficients in aerography. Alexander McAdie. 10 min.

The cool shadow of the cumulus. W. J. Humphreys. 5 min.

Clouds as reliable indicators of winds aloft.

C. F. Brooks. 10 min.

Weather in literature. Herbert Lyman. 10 min.

Distribution of weather information by radio. E. B. Calvert. 10 min.

The central office staff of the U. S. Weather Bureau would be pleased to demonstrate their work to callers before or after the meeting.

The American Physical Society will meet at the Bureau of Standards on Friday and Saturday, April 22 and 23.

The Association of American Geographers will be guests of the American Geographical Society at a joint meeting to be held in New York City on Friday and Saturday, April 22 and 23. The sessions will be held at the Society's building, on Broadway at 156th St.

THE WEATHER IN LITERATURE.

American literature abounds in weather descriptions which are of more than ordinary interest to the meteorologist. Some of these descriptions are good, some are bad, but most of them are indifferent. Whittier's "Snowbound" is a superb description of a typical New England snow-storm, from the first appearance of a halo observed in advancing cirro-stratus cloud to the cold, northwest winds accompanied by bright sunshine on the morning of the day when the last remnant of the storm had passed eastward. J. Fenimore Cooper's works are filled with excellent descriptions of Indian Summer in the north. The weather allusions in Parkman's "Pioneers of France in the New World" are as captivating as are his narrations of the historical events of the stirring times about which he wrote.

Writers of modern realistic fiction are inclined to overdo the weather feature. Whole paragraphs are devoted to weather descriptions, apparently for no other reason than to pad or to extend a meager plot to book-length. Magazine writers who are paid by the number of words apparently earn many a dollar in this manner. The following suggestions to such writers are respectfully submitted: The "best sellers" among books of fiction in the United States are those which have the most general appeal, and therefore are appreciated by residents of all

parts of the country. Now weather varies greatly in different parts of the United States. For this reason weather descriptions must be specific, both in time and in place. For example, March is ordinarily a disagreeable month in the central and eastern portions of the United States, whereas on the Pacific Coast it is one of the most delightful months of the year. Moreover, a typical August day in New York is very different from a typical August day in San Francisco. To have a universal appeal among readers, therefore, weather descriptions must be scientifically correct, both in regard to time and to place.

Another suggestion is that the flow of the narrative is often impeded by lengthy weather descriptions. A reader of fiction is interested in the narration of events and the portrayal of character. He is likely to omit whole paragraphs devoted to descriptions of weather. This point is so well illustrated by the preface to Mark Twain's "American Claimant" that the same is repeated herewith:

"No weather will be found in this book. This is an attempt to pull a book through without weather. It being the first attempt of the kind in fictitious literature, it may prove a failure, but it seemed worth the while of some daredevil person to try it, and the author was in just the mood.

"Many a reader who wanted to read a tale through was not able to do it because of delays on account of the weather. Nothing breaks up an author's progress like having to stop every few pages to fuss-up the weather. Thus it is plain that persistent intrusions of weather are bad for both reader and author.

"Of course weather is necessary to a narrative of human experience. This is conceded. But it ought to be put where it will not be in the way; where it will not interrupt the flow of the narrative. And it ought to be the ablest weather that can be had, not ignorant, poor quality, amateur weather. Weather is a literary specialty, and no untrained hand can turn out a good article of it. The present author can only do a few trifling ordinary kinds of weather, and he cannot do those very good. So it has seemed wisest to borrow such weather as is necessary for the book from qualified and recognized experts-giving credit, of course. This weather will be found over in the back part of the book, out of the way. See appendix. The reader is requested to turn over and help himself from time to time as he goes along."

And in the appendix he has furnished enough samples of different kinds of weather to satisfy the most fastidious.-A. H. Palmer.

THE BERGEN GEOPHYSICAL INSTITUTE.

"POLAR-FRONT" WEATHER FORECASTING.

The following account is extracted from a letter, dated October 1, 1920, from Miss Anne L. Beck, who holds the fellowship in meteorology of the American Scandinavian Foundation (see September BULLETIN, pp. 95-96).

"The Bergen Geophysical Institute has two divisions. The A. division in charge of Professor Helland-Hansen carries on investigations in Oceanography both chemical and physical. We have a regular schedule of lectures Wednesday and Friday from 9.45 to 10.45 A.M. Later some laboratory practise is to be taken up supplemented by actual research and observations in the nearby fjords. These lectures I am to assist in editing for publication as a possible text in Oceanography.

"Geophysical Institute B., the Meteorological Division, is in charge of Professor V. Bjerknes. A weather bureau, in connection with the Institute forms a splendid laboratory. The staff of the weather bureau, includes besides the Director, Mr. J. Bjerknes, now on a lecture tour to the southern countries of Europe, two Swedish meteorologists, Mr. E. Björkdal, Director Pro. Tem., Mr. C. G. Rossby, Mr. A. Tveten and a number of assistants. Mr. Tveten is especially concerned with the problem of the nucleus of condensation in raindrops and is daily making observations by pilot balloon for use in the forecasts and for

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the pilot of the passenger aeroplane from Bergen to Haugesund and Stavanger. Mr. Björkdal and Mr. Rossby are in charge of the weather forecasting.

"A weather chart is prepared 3 times daily, at 8 A.M., at 2 P.M., and 7 P.M. There are three forecast districts, one for northern, one for western and one for eastern Norway, the forecast centres being at Tromsö, Bergen and Christiania, respectively.

"An entirely different method of forecasting from that of the U. S. Weather Bureau is used by the Norwegian Service. Messrs. Solberg, J. Bjerknes and Bergeron, at the Bergen Institute have developed the theory that the phenomena of the weather of the Northern Hemisphere are largely dependent upon the surface of junction of polar and equatorial air. This line of discontinuity can be detected at the earth's surface by conditions of temperature, pressure, hourly pressure change, wind direction and force, humidity and visibility. The line of discontinuity passes through the centres of cyclones connecting the centre of one with those of the preceding and succeeding cyclones. The polar air at the surface is identified as being cold, dry, very transparent, usually blowing from an easterly point, while the air identified as equatorial is warm, moist, with poor visibility, and blows from a westerly point.

"The polar front of each cyclone or surface of demarkation of these two air types is divided into a steering surface and a squall surface. The Bergen weather bureau associates most of the phenomena of cyclones with different parts of the polar front, and in particular on all synoptic charts set out definite rain areas in connection with the two surfaces which meet in the cyclonic centre. The forecasts are built almost entirely on the movement of these surfaces. [See also p. 61.] "No formal lectures have as yet been given in Meteorology at Geophysical Institute B., but Professor Bjerknes has promised to give some mathematical treatments of the problem in the very near future. Before Mr. J. Bjerknes left on his southern trip, several informal discussions of the Bergen Theory had been given.

"So far you may be glad to note I have had no difficulties because I could not speak or understand the Norwegian language. Many people speak English fluently and all are willing to practise it whenever an opportunity presents itself."

WATER POWER.

Students of hydrological meteorology will be interested in a pamphlet entitled "Our Vast Unused Energy," issued on September 15, 1920, by the Guaranty Trust Company of New York. The same can be obtained free of charge from the company's headquarters, 140 Broadway, New York City.

In this pamphlet are published a brief discussion of water power and its possibilities, together with a complete copy of Public Act 280, known as the Water Power Act, a law enacted by the 66th Congress, and approved by the President of the United States on June 10, 1920.

The introductory paragraphs of the article referred to follow:

"The increased costs of fuel and the state of available fuel reserves, which according to the latest report of the Federal Reserve Board continue to be of the most limited character and will necessitate much more energetic action if industrial conditions are to be made safe for the coming winter, are forcing our attention as never before upon the need for more economical power.

"Probably the most significant achievement in the field of American industry in the post-war industrial adjustment is to be the development on a large scale of the nation's vast water-power resources. With the revival of normal industrial activity by the recently belligerent nations, competition in the world's markets will become increasingly severe. Economy in the application of power to the production and transportation of goods will in large part measure the competitive ability of the various nations. As emphasis is more and more placed upon cheapness of power resources, coal and iron alone henceforth will not be such decisive factors in measuring the potential industrial capacity of nations. Water power

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