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WEATHER NEWS FOR AVIATORS

A radio system designed to give information to aviators of weather conditions along their routes of flight, in the air as well as on the ground, has been approved by the Army Air Service and soon will be extended over the entire continent. Actual construction has begun at Mitchell Field, Long Island; Langley Field, Va.; Moundsville, W. Va., and the Wilbur Wright Field at Fairfield, Ohio.

Army aviation officials said today they hoped through operation of the net to prevent in the future disasters as that which occurred last May near Morgantown, Md., and cost the lives of seven persons by an airplane flying into a violent storm of which its occupants had no knowledge.1 Development of the net, they said, was largely due to lessons learned from that disaster, the worst recorded in the history of military aviation.

Plans for installation of the new safety devices, which will function as a net-work of electrical waves covering the country, provide for the dissemination of weather reports, storm warnings and of all information affecting flying.

The Army Air Service contemplates the extension of the net eventually to every field and station in the country. At the present, actual construction has not been attempted west of Ohio.-Worcester Evening Gazette, Nov. 25, 1921.

INSURANCE AGAINST ADVERSE WEATHER

The British custom of taking out weather insurance has acquired a strong foothold in the United States.

Five major league baseball clubs this season have thus safeguarded themselves on all of their Saturday, Sunday and holiday playing dates while many minor league magnates are similarly protecting their exchequers.

More than $1,500,000 was underwritten in rain insurance for the last Fourth of July, it is estimated. Fair weather was general, and less than $100,000 was paid policy holders. Labor Day is expected to break the July 4 record.

A British company underwrote a $750,000 rain insurance policy for Tex Rickard as protection against financial setbacks which the elements might have caused on July 2, the day of the Dempsey-Carpentier bout. The premium of this policy was reported to have been $75,000.

Colleges also have begun to insure against rainy Saturdays during the football season and state and county fairs are likewise taking up the practice. Underwriters report that horse racing promoters and owners of boats used for holiday excursions are their bigger clients. In the Winter they insure ice skating on rinks on the temperature remaining below freezing.

Summer resort hotels insure themselves against bad weather over week-ends and department stores do the same thing for days on which they have advertised sales expected to attract particularly large numbers of purchasers.

The insurance companies charge premiums ranging from 21⁄2 to 25 per cent of the policy and even higher in rare instances. Rates are based on the average rainfall in any locality over a 10-year period and on the month in which the event insured is to take place.-Birmingham News, Aug. 12, 1921.

D. W. Griffith has taken out a $25,000 policy insuring his next production for a snowstorm before November 20.

It is provided in the policy that it must be "a snowstorm that

1 See note in July-August BULLETIN.

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covers the ground with snow and that at least one hour of the storm shall be during daylight."

It is imperative that Mr. Griffith have a snowstorm in which to take important scenes in "The Two Orphans." Contracts of several players in "The Two Orphans" expire November 20, and unless the snow scenes are taken before that time it will be necessary to extend the contracts at much expense.

To protect himself against this cost, Mr. Griffith sought insurance. It is the first ever taken for a storm to occur. Many have been issued against storms. The policy was placed through a New York broker, among a number of subscribers.-Los Angeles Express, Nov. 2, 1921.

THE WINDS ON THE TURN OF THE TIDE

The following observations were made after many years of experience both in winter and summer on that part of the southern New England coast being between Point Judith on the west and Monomoy Point on the east. I seek scientific explanation for an occurrence which is recognized as fact by every old time boatman and fisherman in this vicinity.

On a bright, clear, unusually warm day at the end of March, I sailed to the head of Buzzards Bay in a fresh northwest wind and fair flood tide. The ebb or western tide would help me on my return. An hour before the tide changed it fell flat calm and promptly on the turn, I heard the southwest wind roaring up the bay. It struck hard and sharply, like a squall at rate of forty miles an hour and I was forced to seek shelter in nearest harbor.

In the middle of June in a flat calm and with heavy, black fog, I was caught on the turn of the flood tide off Sakonet Point in a very small boat. Promptly on the turn, the fog was whirled away and the sun shone brightly while the southwester rushed across the water and again sent me flying for nearest port.

Coming up over Nantucket shoals about the first of August I was forced to anchor late one night on account of calm and head or eastern tide. I was just east of Monomoy Point. We were at breakfast when we felt the boat swing to the first eddies of the western ebb tide and at the same time the southwester, blowing half a gale was upon us. This incident is firmly fixed in mind, through the loss of my breakfast and breaking of much crockery.

About the middle of October I lay in a dead calm, in a very small boat, waiting for the turn of the tide before attempting to cross Buzzards Bay. With the beginning of the ebb tide the southwest wind struck in gently and hoisting my little sail I made a fair and pleasant crossing with no anxiety as to increasing wind.

If memory served I might add countless instances, but these should suffice to illustrate briefly the following data concerning this unexplained occurrence.

1st. Along this shore it is the southwest wind alone which comes on the turn of the tide and it comes only at the beginning of the ebb or western tide.

2d. It comes with greatest force in the early spring, gradually decreasing as season advances. It strikes more heavily between the hours of eight A. M. and three P. M., when the sun is warmest.

3d.

4th.

I do not recall an instance in the winter.

A calm with warm sun, invariably precedes the turning of

the tide and coming of the wind.

5th. In the spring it is not unusual to find the occurrence repeated several days in succession an hour later each day and with the wind daily decreasing in violence.

6th. It does not occur at night or in cloudy weather but fog alone does not prevent.

In conclusion let me describe the phenomenon as if an invisible barrier was suddenly tumbled down by the tide, allowing the heretofore pent up winds to sweep forward at their will. When the stage is properly set, this thing happens. Can you tell me why?-Henry M. Plummer.

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Entered as second-class matter, March 1, 1920, at the Post Office at Worcester, Massachusetts, under the Act of August 24, 1912.

BULLETIN

OF THE

AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY

Published Monthly by the American Meteorological Society Publication Office: 66 High Street, Worcester, Mass. Address all Communications to “Secretary, Am. Met'l Soc., Clark University, Worcester, Mass."

Vol. 2

DECEMBER, 1921

No. 12

PROGRAM OF THE TORONTO MEETING

December 28 and 29, 1921

The meetings will be held at the Meteorological Office of the Canadian Meteorological Service. The Meteorological Office is at 315 Bloor Street, West, reached by "Belt Line and Bloor" cars, stopping at St. George Street. Nearby, in the Library Building of the University of Toronto there will be found the general registration room and executive offices of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, also the post office, telegraph office and information bureau. Members may find there exact information in regard to meeting-places, dormitories, as well as other matters. Dormitory rooms at $3 per day, including meals, may be reserved on application to Mr. J. Patterson. Mail may be sent to "American Association, P. O., University of Toronto." Several passenger associations have granted a rate of a fare and one-half, on the certificate plan, for the round trip to Toronto. Any modifications of the program as printed here will be announced at the opening session of the Society.

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Address of welcome. Sir Frederic Stupart, Director, Canadian Meteorological Service.

Modal atmospheric streaming in wet and dry seasons in the Canadian wheat region. (Illustrated) A. J. Connor, Meteorological Office, Toronto. 30 min.

Some phases of the climate of Manitoba in relation to agriculture. (Illustrated) S. C. Lee, Manitoba Agricultural College, Winnipeg. 40 min.

W. J. Humphreys, U. S.

The five zones of atmospheric circulation. Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C. 15 min. Temperatures outside vs. those inside a thermometer shelter. C. F. Brooks, Clark University, Worcester. 5 min.

Anemometry. J. Patterson, Meteorological Office, Toronto. 20 min. Meteorological and astronomical pulses. Lury, Dominion Observatory, Ottawa. 10 min.

(Illustrated)

R. E. De

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