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bers, who had paid dues for 1923 and were therefore still kept on the Active list. Of these, 606, or 84 per cent, had paid dues for 1924. Two qualified as Sustaining members and 1 as a Corporate member ($20 or more); 89 as Constributing members ($5 or more); and 12 paid varying amounts between $2 and $5 each.

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No additions to this Fund have been made during the year, and no changes have been made in the investments. The latter include 12 bonds listed in Schedule B. There is, in addition, an uninvested balance of $61.67, deposited in a Savings Account at 3% interest with the American Security & Trust Co.. Washington, D. C. The 12 bonds originally cost $1,108.33. Their market value was $1,098.12 at the close of business, October 31, 1923, and $1,160.12 at the close of business, October 31, 1924.


By action of the Council on August 9, 1924, contributions to this Fund were ordered deposited in a Savings Account at the end of each month, pending the appointment of an investment committee. The total received up to October 31, 1924, including interest of $0.80 credited October 1, 1924, was $529.40. This amount is now on deposit in the Savings Department of the American Security & Trust Co., Washington, D. C.

G. SUBSCRIPTIONS FOR Monthly Weather Review AND Daily Weather Maps

As in previous years, the Society has ordered these publications from the Superintendent of Documents for members paying $5.00 or more and expressing a wish to receive them. Included in the list are 5 contributing life members ($100 each).

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Rebates from Superintendent of Documents,

(Erroneous, covered by re-orders)

Rebate for foreign postage, not charged
Account Contributing Life Members

$110 15

3 15


7 50

$121 55

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On October 31, 1924, there were due

Annual dues from 112 delinquent members

For 100 reprints of October issue of the BULLETIN

$224 00
3 20

$227 20


All accounts against the Society up to October 31, 1924, have been paid, and there are no bills payable.

Respectfully submitted,



Auditor's Statement

The undersigned, duly appointed to audit the accounts of the Treasurer of the American Meteorological Society, report as follows:

The daily receipts from all sources were found to agree with the statements of deposits in the bank, and the cancelled checks were found in accord with the statement of disbursements.

The balance in bank, given for October 31, 1924, agrees with the bank's statement of that date, receipts and disbursements balancing.

The securities representing investments of the Society's Life Membership Fund, consisting of Twelve $100 bonds having a face value of $1200 and a market value of $1160 on October 31, 1924, now in the safe deposit vault of the American Security and Trust Company, were examined and found as listed with coupons not due attached; also, the bank book of the Savings Department of the same company shows an uninvested balance of the Life Membership Fund of $61.67, and a deposit, including interest, of $529.40 to the credit of the Meisinger Fund for Aerological Research, as stated.

The card index of members, referred to in the Report of 1923, has been completed, and it is now possible to ascertain, almost at a glance, the status of any member or group of members as well as changes in the affairs of the Society. Acknowledgment should be made here of the generosity of the Treasurer and Mrs. Gregg in preparing this index without cost to the Society.

The accuracy, neatness and general excellence of the Treasurer's records, and the efficiency with which the affairs of his office are conducted deserve the highest commendation.

Respectfully submitted,

December 20, 1924.


Report of the Secretary

The Society held three well-attended meetings, as in 1923, and as usual, published a more or less monthly BULLETIN, the 180 pages of which were to a large extent devoted to reports of the numerous papers and the considerable amount of discussion at the meetings. A few papers were published in full, and there was a fair amount of news material, miscellaneous notes, book notices, and obituaries. There were but few committees and, therefore, little from them to report. The cooperation of several members and fellows in supplying interesting items


for the BULLETIN is much appreciated, and it is hoped that a greater number may take an active part in making the BULLETIN interesting.

The turnover in membership amounting to 140 losses and 88 gains was of about the same order as in 1923. There was a net reduction of 52 from 713 to 661 paid up and life members. (See table).

MEMBERSHIP LIST, DECEMBER 20, 1922, 1923, AND 1924

1922 1923 1924

Life Members (5—$100, 2—$40, 2—$30, 1—$25, 23-$20, at end of 1924)

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Sustaining and Corporation Members.

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Contributing Members

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Annual Members at rates above minimum




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It seems that with but 29 new members for the year the present members and fellows of the Society are not bringing the Society to the attention of others as much as they might. With no campaign for membership we must, of course, rely on our present members and fellows for at least enough new entries to offset the unavoidable losses. Nevertheless, with well over 600 members and fellows, most of whom have been in the Society for the first five years of its existence, we are on a solid foundation and can look forward with confidence to our second fiveyear period. Our meetings seem eminently worth while; our BULLETIN is generally appreciated. The research grant we were able to make a year ago has brought forth a new flock of beautiful snow crystal photographs. Further grants in future years are likely also to favor the advance of one or another phase of meteorology.

A great loss to the Society during the year was Dr. C. LeRoy Meisinger, killed during a series of meteorological balloon flights. Dr. Meisinger was a councilor of the Society and had he lived probably would have been appointed assistant secretary and editor of the BULLETIN. He was already acting much in the former capacity. Through a memorial fund being created under the title of Meisinger Aerological Research Fund, A great loss to the Society during the year was Dr. C. LeRoy Meisinger, was so enthusiastically pushing forward.

Respectfully submitted,


Scientific Sessions

There were five sessions at which scientific papers were presentedone on December 31st, and two each on January 2d and 3d. Almost without exception the papers were discussed, in some cases by several members and visitors, and much of interest and value was brought out in these discussions. Several of the papers either have been or will be published in the Monthly Weather Review or elsewhere. Abstracts of the others are given in the following pages, and with them brief summaries of the discussions. In preparing the latter Mr. W. R. Gregg has been greatly assisted by Messrs. John J. Brennan and Vernon N. Wolf of the Weather Bureau, who made stenographic notes at all of the sessions.

The Presidential Address.

The first scientific session was held in the afternoon of December 31st, with Prof. R. DeC. Ward, ex-president, in the chair, and was wholly occupied in listening to the presidential address by Prof. W. I. Milham on, The Year 1816-The Causes of Abnormalities.

The climatic features of this year and of the period in which it occurred were discussed and compared both with normal conditions and with other abnormal periods. The general question of why any year or any period is abnormal was then attacked, and the various theories that have been advanced at different times were presented and analyzed. Though anything like a definite answer cannot yet be given to this question, it was pointed out that real progress has been and is being made. The speaker concluded by urging that more intensive studies be undertaken on this very important subject.

The presiding officer warmly congratulated the speaker and expressed the thanks of the Society for his very illuminating and timely address.

In accordance with the rules governing presidential addresses there was no formal discussion following the presentation of this one. The address will be published in full in the Monthly Weather Review.

The Madrid Meeting of the International Union of the Geodesy and Geophysics

By H. H. Kimball

(Published in the Monthly Weather Review, November, 1924).

A question being asked as to the source of financial support for the work of the Union, Dr. Kimball replied that funds are derived from payments by the different countries as adhering members of the International Research Council and of the Associated Unions.

Application of Schuster's Periodogram to Long Rainfall Records By DINSMORE ALTER

This paper may be found in the Monthly Weather Review for October, 1924, pp. 479-488.

Discussion PROF. C. F. MARVIN requested and was granted 5 minutes in which to present a formal discussion. This is to be published in an early number of the Monthly Weather Review. In substance, after expressing admiration for Dr. Alter's zeal, industry and confidence in carrying on a laborious investigation, Prof. Marvin pointed out what he believed to be the great superiority of the classic Fourier series with a large number of terms to Schuster's periodogram for this particular type of problem. It is superior, he contended, because (1) the terms of the Fourier series are perfectly independent of each other and differ by constant phase angles at the end of the cycle, a condition prerequisite in the construction of the periodogram. Intermediate periods which might possibly escape discovery can be disclosed by one or more secondary Fourier series; (2) meteorological periodicities are hidden and obscure chiefly because of small amplitude, whereas Schuster's criterion segregates only periodicities of large amplitude; (3) the Fourier series is much the simpler and shorter method of analysis. An example was shown that brought out these advantages.

PROF. W. I. MILHAM, referring to a proposal advanced in some quarters that sun spots be considered as having a period of about 22 years, desired to voice his objection to this proposal. Admitting that the polarity of the spots has a 22-year period, he pointed out that all other related phenomena, i. e., shape and size of corona, faculae, length and position of prominences, etc., have a quite definite 11-year period. He wished to ask the speaker (Dr. Alter) if there is anything in nature that corresponds to one-ninth of the sun-spot period.

MR. H. H. CLAYTON said he had regarded the periodogram method extremely hopeful when Schuster first presented it, but that first results were disappointing. He regarded Dr. Alter's work as very promising and hoped he would continue it. He was not convinced that the Fourier series is suitable for analyzing variable periods, its weakness consisting of the difficulty of making the subdivisions. He pointed out also that the periodogram method fails in the case of sun spots that return several times in succession, sometimes as many as 7 or 8 times. All data of this sort need very careful interpretation. He agreed with Prof. Milham that a relation to something in nature must be shown before one can be convinced that a real period exists.

DR. ALTER, in reply, could not admit that Schuster's periodogram is not suitable for analyzing periods of small amplitude, since the latter are quite as real as those of large amplitude. What is needed is a longer series of data. He did not. moreover, find the method laborious, as he used groups of stations. In doing this, however, one must be sure that all the data are purely marine or purely continental. Failure to pay attention to geographical factors has often given negative results and seriously retarded progress in studies of rainfall periodicities. With regard to Prof. Milham's question he must answer it in the negative. Sun spots themselves have no effect on rainfall. Perhaps there is a sort of forced vibration between the earth and the atmosphere, similar to those we find throughout our work in physics. He had not, however, given this phase of the subject sufficient study to hazard more than a guess.

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