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standard of the textual material. The diagrams for monthly rainfalls and temperatures are of the same make-up throughout, simple line diagrams as clear as they are simple. Unfortunately, however, the transition from December to January is always omitted. Furthermore, in the rainfall diagrams, the co-ordinates are carried down to a base one inch below zero. This prevents the eye from making relative measurements of monthly rainfall, and obscures the real amounts. Many of the maps suffer also from a poor selection of shading. The shading commonly does not indicate whether belts side by side have higher or lower values. The numbers at the ends of the lines, however, make the maps legible. The frontispiece rainfall map of the United States, on the contrary, is a fine example of progressive depth of shading with increase in values.

Realtive to the content, while the reviewer could not expect to agree throughout with the author's selection and presentation of material, there are a few points which at least deserve comment. One is Professor Ward's omission of the indirect effects of ocean temperatures on continental climates. Nobody who knows of the expansive effects of warm ocean waters upon the overlying air and the resultant tendency toward low pressure will agree "that an ocean current can have practically no influence on the climate of an adjacent land unless the wind is blowing onshore." (p. 21, cf. also pp. 366 and 452). The warm Gulf of Mexico and Gulf Stream are constantly intensifying the passing lows and creating new ones near the eastern seaboard, thus greatly intensifying northerly and northwesterly winds of the eastern United States, making a colder and snowier climate there. In two instances, where, to be sure, Professor Ward's own discussion of the subjects may be adequate, references to some other important investigations are not found. On p. 56 in connection with the distribution of temperature about the centers of cyclones and anticyclones, the most thoroughgoing work of the late Anton D. Udden, on the distribution of meteorological elements about the centers of cyclones and anticyclones at Davenport, Ia., (Mo. Weather Rev., Feb., 1923) is not mentioned. And in the discussion of climate and health, Dr. Ellsworth Huntington's extensive findings, published in "Civilization and Climate," are omitted. The reviewer believes that some of the more generalized chapters, such as temperature and seasonal rainfall, would have been less heavy if some particular instances had been included, as, for example, in the author's discussion of thunderstorms, hot winds and chinook winds.

Well conceived, admirably arranged, fully referenced, and carefully indexed, Professor R. DeC. Ward's, "The Climates of the United States," is a masterpiece of its kind, and will long stand as the book to which one must turn for a foundation on which to build any further contributions to the climatology of the United States.-Charles F. Brooks, Clark University.

(Note: Professor Alexander McAdie has reviewed Professor Ward's "The Climates of the United States," in Science, Nov. 20, 1925, pp. 462463).

VOTE!

The enclosed ballot is for the use of all members and fellows.

THE AMENDMENT PROPOSED

Article VII of the Constitution of the Society as it now stands (See BULLETIN, October, 1922, p. 144) has proved too cumbersome, especially in nominating. In consequence, the Council appointed a committee of C. F. Marvin, Chairman, W. I. Milham, and C. F. Brooks, to recommend a revision. Suggestions were obtained from the members of the Council and incorporated so far as consistent in framing the following amended form of Article VII. This was approved by the Council for submission to the Society for balloting at this time. The Constitution provides that "The adoption of the proposed amendment shall require the affirmative votes of not less than two-thirds of all fellows and members voting." In case your vote is in the negative, your suggestions for improving Article VII would be much appreciated.

ARTICLE VII (Amended)

1. Officers and councilors of the Society shall be elected by ballot at the annual meeting each year. On or before October 1 each year the President shall appoint a nominating committee of three. The committee shall nominate one or two fellows for each office, obtain the written consent of the nominees, and report such nominations to the Secretary before November 1. This report shall be sent at once to each voting member and fellow of the Society. Additional nominations made in writing by not less than twenty members and fellows shall be included in the ballot if received by the Secretary before November 20, and if the nominee gives his written consent. By December 1 the Secretary shall send to each voting member and fellow of the Society the ballot containing the nominations by committee and others as provided above. Ballots may be cast by mail or in person prior to the closing of the polls at the annual meeting. The majority of all votes cast shall be necessary for election. In case of failure to secure a majority for any office, the fellows and members present at the annual meeting shall ballot as many more times as may be required to poll for one candidate for the office a majority of those present.

2. The Council shall be so constituted that a majority of its members shall not belong professionally to the same institution.

3. The term of office of the President and the Vice-President shall be two years, and neither shall be eligible to succeed himself. The term of office for Secretary and Treasurer shall be one year, and for councilors three years.

4. The election of Vice-President to the Presidency shall not become the rule.

5. If an office for any reason becomes vacant, the vacancy shall be filled by the Council for the remainder of the term.

6. The Council may lay down additional rules for governing elections.

OF THE

AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY

Published Monthly by the American Meteorological Society at Worcester, Mass. Address All Communications and Exchanges to "Secretary, Am. Meteorological Society, Clark University, Worcester, Mass."

Vol. 6

DECEMBER, 1925

No. 12

PROGRAM OF KANSAS CITY MEETING

Monday Morning Session, December 28, 9.30 A. M.; Room 38,

Junior College

1. Upper Air Winds of Central and Eastern United States. (20 min.) (Lantern.) W. R. GREGG, U. S. Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C.

2. The Wind Factor and the Air Mail Southward from Kansas City. (15 min.) J. A. RILEY, U. S. Weather Bureau, Broken Arrow, Okla. 3. Tornadoes of the Middle West. (20 min.) S. D. FLORA, U. S. Weather Bureau, Topeka, Kan.

4. Some Outstanding Tornadoes. Weather Bureau, Springfield, Ill.

(30 min.)

C. J. ROOT, U. S.

(15 min.)
(15 min.)

5. An Unusual Display of the Mammato-Cumulus. (Lantern.) W. J. HUMPHREYS, U. S. Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C.

6. A Critical Examination of the Alleged Effects of the Planets on the Weather. (20 min.) W. J. HUMPHREYS, U. S. Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C.

Monday Afternoon Session, December 28, 2.00 P. M.; Room 38,

Junior College

7. The Value of Pyrheliometer Readings Alone for Investigations of Solar Radiation and Weather Forecasting. (20 min.) (Lantern.) C. F. MARVIN, U. S. Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C.

8. Application of Schuster's Periodogram to Rainfall Periods Between Two and a Sixth and Nine Years. (30 min.) (Lantern.) DINSMORE ALTER, University of Kansas.

9. Surface Temperatures of the Caribbean and Gulf Stream, January to March, 1924. (By title.) C. F. BROOKS, Clark University, Worcester, Mass.

10. The Climatic Aspects of Cotton Growing in Southern Illinois and Missouri. (5 min.) W. E. BARRON, U. S. Weather Bureau, Cairo, Ill. 11. Weather and Potatoes in Wyoming. (15 min.) G. W. PITMAN, U. S. Weather Bureau, Cheyenne, Wyoming.

12. A Droughty Year (1925) with Bumper Crops (in Ohio). (15 min.) W. H. ALEXANDER, U. S. Weather Bureau, Columbus, Ohio. 13. The Climate of Southeastern Wyoming. VISHER, Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind.

(By title.)

S. S.

Tuesday Morning Session, December 29, 9.00 A. M.; Room 38,

Junior College

14. Potential Gradient Observations on a Typical Nebraska Thunderstorm. (5 min.) J. C. JENSEN, Nebraska Wesleyan University, University Place, Neb.

15. Some Relations Between Radio Reception and Weather Conditions. (10 min.) J. C. JENSEN, Nebraska Wesleyan University, University Place, Neb.

16. The Muscle Shoals Development in the Tennessee River. (10 min.) W. E. BARRON, U. S. Weather Bureau, Cairo, Ill.

17. Exposure of Raingages. Weather Bureau, Topeka, Kan.

(15 min.) B. R. LASKOWSKI, U. S.

Tuesday Morning, Annual Business Meeting, December 29, 11.00 A. M.; Room 38, Junior College

After the business meeting those in attendance may go as a group to the exhibition of scientific research.

On Monday evening, December 28, at 8 o'clock, the retiring president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Dr. J. McKeen Cattell, will speak on "Some Psychological Experiments." All are cordially invited to attend.

Tuesday afternoon and Wednesday morning, December 29 and 30, the American Physical Society will hold a symposium on Relativity. Wednesday afternoon will come the Gibbs lecture, under the joint auspices of the Mathematical and Physical Societies.

Thursday morning, Dr. Dinsmore Alter will be glad to conduct any visiting members of the American Meteorological Society through the University of Kansas, at Lawrence.

Many details concerning the coming meeting at Kansas City will be found in Science, November 27, 1925.

TREASURER'S QUARTERLY REPORT
August 1 to October 31, 1925

Receipts

Dues

$34 00

Contributions in excess of dues

6 00

BULLETIN subscriptions, advertisement and sale of copies
Interest on investments and bank deposits
Monthly Weather Review subscriptions

13 80

24 66

3 00

Contributions to Meisinger Aerological Research Fund

65 00

$146 46

Disbursements

Printing of BULLETIN, July, Aug.-Sept., and Oct. issues.

$364 57

Mailing of BULLETIN, same issues

27 90

Clerical assistance, Secretary

50 00

Stationery, postage and miscellaneous expenses, Secretary and
Treasurer

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AN AMERICAN CONFERENCE ON OCEANOGRAPHY AND
MARINE METEOROLOGY

The Scripps Institution of Oceanography of the University of California held a conference on the physical oceanography and marine meteorology of the northeast Pacific and the climate of the western part of the United States, November 6 and 7, 1925. Most of the 10 papers presented dealt with forecasting seasonal precipitation. The first part of the program dealt with the oceanographic investigations of the Scripps Institution, the Coast and Geodetic Survey, and the U. S. Navy, papers being presented by Dr. T. W. Vaughan, Commander P. C. Whit ney, and Dr. G. F. McEwen. Coastal fogs in California were discussed by Mr. Dean Blake. Dr. McEwen opened the discussion of forecasting seasonal precipitation with a detailed account of his studies during the past nine years (Cf. Oct., 1925, BULLETIN, pp. 163-164). This paper will probably appear in full in the November Monthly Weather Review, along with a summary of the conference. Major E. H. Bowie followed with a discussion of "The northeast Pacific anticyclone and its relation to California climate." The next four papers showed benefits had or to be expected from long range forecasts, from the hydro-electric company's point of view, the irrigation engineer's, the agriculturist's, and the forester's. Abstracts of these four papers follow.

Application of the Scripps Institution's Seasonal Forecasts of Rainfall
from Ocean Temperatures to Forecasting Seasonal Water Power
Supply for the Hydro-electric Plants of the Southern California
Edison Company.

By A. WILSTAM, of the Southern California Edison Company, Los
Angeles
(Abstract)

One of California's greatest problems is the distribution and conservation of water for irrigation and hydro-electric power. The total precipitation for the season varies greatly from year to year, and its amount is most vital to California. The Southern California Edison Company expects to spend two million dollars for fuel during 1926 if it is an average year. Should it prove to be a minimum water year an increase of $4,400,000 will be needed. The company must prepare for this unknown contingency and can do so most intelligently if the trend of the coming season can be foretold. Several utility companies in California are vitally interested in the same problem.

If it were possible to forecast the season's rainfall, if only to the extent of knowing it was to be average, above or below average, intelligent planning could be done, hazards and failures minimized and the general business and prosperity of the state would be greatly benefited.

The summer ocean temperature data supplied by the Scripps Institution are found to be closely enough correlated with the following seasonal rainfall to be given consideration in preparing their yearly budget of the Southern California Edison Company. Seven to eight indications out of nine have proved to be in the right direction.

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