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acterized by a High over the Pacific Ocean and a Low over the North American Continent; but in September and October the rapid cooling of the land mass permits the summer pressure régime to relax with some decrease in the strength and persistency of the Californian sea-wind, so that the autumn sunshine has a better chance to warm up the coastal belt. Thus the local autumnal warming of the San Francisco coast might be regarded as an indirect result of the general cooling of the interior valleys of California. Little paradoxes of this kind are commonly met with in climatological analysis. This explanation seems to be supported by the fact that the mean total wind movement is less in both September and October than in any month after March, the highest value being for July, according to data at hand for San Francisco. The summer in-draught of air along the Californian coast is no doubt a sort of magnified sea-breeze intensified by the high pressure over the Pacific, and by the effect of the Coast Range of mountains. In winter the local winds at San Francisco are more variable, and the frequent SW. winds, which bring rain from the ocean, are associated with North Pacific cyclonic systems.

The following table of mean temperature and rainfall affords a very instructive comparison between San Francisco on the Pacific coast and Washington on the Atlantic coast, on approximately the same latitude, about 38° N. The dates are based on the period,* 1871-1918, and are taken from pamphlet publications courteously sent to me by the U. S. Weather Bureau.

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It will be seen that the summer heat of Washington is very much like that of southern Europe, but that San Francisco shows the typically Mediterranean feature of a rainless summer and wet winter. The rather heavier summer than winter rainfall at Washington, and the seasonal direction of the winds (not indicated in the above table) show that the Atlantic sea-board of the United States has something of a "Monsoon" climate though not in so marked a degree as the east coast of Asia. For instance, the mean direction of the surface wind at Washington for seven months in the year is NW. or from land to sea, whereas during the 5 hot months May to September it is from S. The interpretation is no doubt this: that during the cold months the monsoonal influence reinforces the general westerly drift of the atmosphere in Temperate latitudes, and during the hot months it acts in opposition. A sectional analysis of surface winds would probably show that during the summer months due S. winds are not *San Francisco rainfall from 1849.


necessarily more frequent than those from other directions, but that easterly directions from the sea representing the monsoonal effect are about as common as westerly directions due to the general circulation. For seven months, that is on the balance of the year, the general westerly movement asserts itself.

San Francisco has on the whole a rather tame climate, storms being infrequent. Snowfall is rare, and thunderstorms are both rare and feeble, occurring generally during the wet winter period. The variability of the liberal winter rainfall, however, is rather great, the January average of 5.13 inches being represented by a maximum of 24.36 inches in 1862, and a minimum of 0.58 inches in 1853.

At Washington heavy snowfalls occur during the winter; and summer thunderstorms are frequent, the average number of days being: April, 2; May, 5; June, 6; July, 7; Aug., 5; Sept., 2, the months May to August standing out as in most places with great prominence.-L. C. W. Bonacina.

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The objects of this Society are: The advancement and diffusion of knowledge of meteorology, including climatology; and the development of its application to public health, agriculture, engineering, transportation by land and inland waterways, navigation of the air and oceans, and other forms of industry and commerce.-CONSTITUTION, ARTICLE II.


Membership dues are one dollar or more per year. Those paying $5 to $20 are classed as Contributing Members; those paying $20 to $100 are classed as Sustaining Members, and those paying $100 or more are classed as Patrons. Life membership in any of the classes are at twenty times the annual dues for the class. The dues for Corporation Members are $20 or $100 per year. All members receive the BULLETIN of the Society, and those paying $5, or more, the Monthly Weather Review as well. Consultation with the various committees is open to all. All members have equal voting privileges.


President, ROBERT DEC. WARD, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.
Vice-President, W. J. HUMPHREYS, U. S. Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C.
Secretary, CHARLES F. BROOKS, Clark University, Worcester, Mass.
Treasurer, ROBERT E. HORTON, R. D. No. 1, Voorheesville, N. Y.

Entered as second-class matter March 1, 1920, at the Post Office at Easton, Pennsylvania, under the Act of August 24, 1912.




Published Monthly by the American Meteorological Society
Publication office: 207 Church Street, Easton, Pa.

Address all Communications to "Secretary, Am. Met'l Soc., Clark University,
Worcester, Mass."

Vol. 2



No. 9

The printers' strike, the Secretary's change of position and of headquarters, and the usual summer dullness, combined to bring the Society's activities practically to a standstill for several months. The Secretary is settled at Clark University, Worcester, Mass., and has obtained the aid of two graduate students and the services of a stenographer. With a central office ready to handle business with dispatch, the various committees can be assured of prompt attention to their needs. The BULLETIN will make up lost time by appearing every two or three weeks for the rest of the year.

NOTICE TO STUDENTS OF METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY. A fellow of the American Meteorological Society has agreed to supply funds "to be used as honoraria for meteorological and climatological contributions, reviews, abstracts, notes, etc., written by students in American colleges and universities and published in the October 1921, and later issues of the Monthly Weather Review or BULLETIN OF THE AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY. 1 cent a word will be paid for original articles, and 1⁄2 cent a word for reviews, abstracts and notes, except for those of books or articles not in English, for which the rate will be 1 cent. The principal objects are, to supply enough reviews and abstracts to cover adequately the meteorological contributions published the world over, and to help students of meteorology and climatology to pursue their courses." Manuscripts for publication in the Monthly Weather Review should be submitted to "Chief, U. S. Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C." and those for the BULLETIN, to "Secretary, American Meteorological Society, Clark University, Worcester, Mass."

Teachers of meteorology and climatology should bring this to the attention of their classes.


A meeting of the Marine Committee of the American Meteorological Society was held at Washington, D. C., on April 29, 1921, to consider general matters relating to ocean meteorological work. There were present the Chairman, Mr. F. G. Tingley, Col. E. Lester Jones, Dr. G. W. Littlehales, Capt. F. A. Young, Mr. J. H. Kimball and Dr. C. F. Brooks, the latter at the invitation of the Committee for the purpose of presenting a program covering certain measures of coöperation in oceanographic and meteorological investigations.


After general discussion covering the present status of the marine work and its future needs the following motion was passed:


That the Committee on Marine Meteorology recommend to the Council of the American Meteorology Society the adoption of resolutions expressing its concern over the insufficiency of the present marine meteorological program of the Weather Bureau, and urging the desirability of providing such funds as the Bureau may request for increasing the inflow of marine meteorological information and for making adequate investigations of important problems in marine meteorology. The suggested resolutions are as follows:

"Whereas, the Council of the American Meteorological Society views with concern the present state of the ocean meteorological work of the Weather Bureau which it regards as totally inconsistent with the importance of this work, and, "Whereas, in the earlier period of meteorology when the United States merchant marine was preeminent on the seas the marine work of this country was fostered, especially under the leadership of Maury, and played an important part in the success of our shipping, and,

"Whereas, the United States, as represented by Redfield, Espy, Maury and others, has in the past played an honorable part in the development of the science of ocean meteorology, and,

"Whereas, with the decline of the merchant marine this work failed to receive the support to which it was justly entitled, while with the upbuilding of American shipping, it has not yet received recognition in keeping therewith, and,

"Whereas, at the present time there is urgent need both for additional data and for an adequate force to investigate the special problems of this branch of meteorology, such as those related to West India hurricanes and the influence of ocean water temperatures on weather and climate, therefore be it

"Resolved, that this Council endorses most earnestly the recommendations made to Congress by the present administration of the Weather Bureau for sufficient funds to place this work on a firm and adequate footing commensurate with its importance to meteorology in general and the development of our new merchant marine in particular, and be it further

"Resolved, that this Council urge upon members of American Meteorological Society to do all in their power to secure the favorable consideration of Congress to this end."

The Committee then took up for consideration the question of an international program of work, presented by Dr. C. F. Brooks, involving cooperation by the several established agencies for meteorological and oceanographic research both in the United States and in other countries. It was decided to prepare a tentative program to be submitted to members of the Committee for more mature consideration.

The program is covered in the following resolution, which, after such changes as seem desirable, will be submitted to the Council by the Committee with the recommendation that it be adopted.

"Whereas, the coming weather is a fundamental concern of man, and, "Whereas, the weather of the lands is inseparately associated with atmospheric conditions of the neighboring oceans, and,

"Whereas, these conditions are closely dependent on the distribution of ocean surface temperatures.

"THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED by the American Meteorological Society: That vessels should be stationed at key points in the ocean currents of the world for the purpose of rendering continuous observations of the temperatures of these currents and the conditions of the weather, to wit:

1. The California Current (recently studied by the Scripps Institution for Biological Research, at La Jolla, Calif.). (The temperatures of this current seem to be closely associated with the rainfall of Southern California.)


2. The Canaries Current

3. The Benguela Current

4. The Humboldt Current

Largely responsible for the practically rainless conditions of the adjoining coasts.

5. The West Australian Current (Probably closely associated with Australian droughts.)

6. The North (Atlantic) Equatorial Current. (A great breeding ground of hurricanes.)

7. The South (Atlantic) Equatorial Current. (Of great influence on the weather of Brazil.)

8. The Pacific Equatorial Current (Hawaii to Tahiti). (The breeder of typhoons.)

9. The Gulf stream in the Straits of Florida. (An index to the Atlantic reservoir of heat which affects the weather of the eastern United States during the following three months, and which also has a marked influence on the weather of the North Atlantic between the Grand Banks and northwestern Europe.

10. The Kuro Siwo (Japan Current) off Yokohama. (Influence in the Pacific region corresponds to that of the Gulf Stream in the Atlantic.)

11. The meeting ground of the Labrador Current and Gulf Stream. (Now covered in spring by the Coast Guard ice patrols-should be extended to all months.)

12. The Japan Current in mid-Pacific (Aleutians to Midway Island). (Where many of the storms which cross the United States have their origin.)

13. The North Atlantic Ocean half way between Newfoundland and Iceland (about 57° N., 35° W.) a meteorologically unknown region, much needed as an outpost to herald many of the storms that affect N. W. Europe.

14. The East Greenland Current (between Iceland and Greenland). ice-box of the North Atlantic.)


"AND BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED: That the Congress of the United States be urged to provide appropriations to the U. S. Weather Bureau to establish and maintain stations 1, 6, 8, and 12; to the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey to operate station 9, (as a sequel to the illustrious investigations of the Gulf Stream which it has carried out in the past), and to the U. S. Coast Guard to operate station 11 throughout the year: That through the International Geophysical Union France or Holland be invited to operate station 2; the Union of South Africa, station 3; Peru, station 4; Australia, station 5; Brazil, station 7; Japan, station 10; and that the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea be urged to extend its invaluable observations and investigations to include the highly important stations 13 and 14."

The Committee also prepared for further consideration of its members, final action to be taken at a future meeting, the following plan for establishing a scholarship in marine meteorology and awarding gifts for investigations in this branch of the science.


That the Committee on Marine Meteorology of the American Meteorological Society, through a duly appointed officer, solicit contributions to the extent of $2000 annually, either in the form of corporation memberships or special gifts, for the purpose of offering a $500 scholarship in marine meteorology at Harvard University, for offering three sets of 1st, 2nd and 3rd prizes of $200, $100 and $50, to be awarded annually by the American Meteorological Society for the best investigations in marine meteorology, one set to be given for researches on tropical cyclones, one set on ocean temperatures and the weather, and one set on other subjects in marine meteorology; and for providing grants to enable reliable investigators to undertake research along such lines.-F. G. Tingley, Chairman, A meeting of the Marine Committee of the American Meteorological Society was held at Washington, D. C., on June 15, 1921, to consider certain matters

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